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Category List (One Category Selected – Capstone Experiences)

  • Butler, Des, Sandra Coe, Rachael Field, Judith McNamara, Sally Kift, and Catherine Brown. 2017. “Embodying Life-Long Learning: Transition and Capstone Experiences.” Oxford Review of Education 43 (2): 194-208. https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2016.1270199.

    About this Journal Article:

    This case study describes the first of six principles, which informed the development of a capstone design for Australian legal education, and according to the authors, should inform the development of any capstone. The authors focus on Transition–the first of their selected principles–as a theoretical framework for the pedagogical design they develop. They extend Kift’s Transition Pedagogy, an adaptation of Schlossberg that focuses on first year students, to inform final year practices—viewing final year students as students in transition, too. The authors identify three areas in which the incorporation of transition pedagogy can enhance a capstone experience and help students manage uncertainty, complexity, and change; develop a professional identity; and career plan. While the case study doesn’t cover the implementation of the capstone design, the study can offer a useful model for capstone development. Additionally, the transition framework does a helpful job of linking student development theory (and Schlossberg’s theory of transition) with pedagogy and ends with qualitative data from students as evidence of the necessity of the framework.

  • Des, Butler , Sandra Coe, Rachael Field, Judith McNamara, Sally Kift, and Catherine Brown. 2017. “Embodying life-long learning.” Transition and capstone experiences, Oxford Review of Education 43 (2): 194-208.

  • Collier, Peter J. 2000. “The Effects of Completing a Capstone Course on Student Identity.” Sociology of Education 73 (4): 285-299. https://doi.org/10.2307/2673235.

    About this Journal Article:

    Collier’s article studies the effect of participation in a capstone experience on undergraduate students’ identification as a college student. He proposes that the increased identification with this role by capstone students over time indicate capstones’ effectiveness in socialization. Using different identity theories around role identities and role-identity acquisition as theoretical frameworks, Collier developed a longitudinal study of 26 senior capstone students (multidisciplinary and across the university) of one year’s capstone at a university, with a nonequivalent control group (n=26). Using pre- and post-measurements, Collier found that the nature of the capstone as a grounded and experiential course contributed to its transformative impact on students. Students connecting with the community in a capstone context were pushed to work more collaboratively, and this social aspect of their learning and work helped them to associate more strongly with the role of college student. The development of identity as a student is a potential strength of capstones. However, Collier fails to discuss why developing a student identity–especially in the senior year–is a worthwhile or positive practice, nor does he discuss how that student identity intersects with other social identities a student may hold. Collier does offer several practical implications for curriculum and specifically capstone development.

  • Collier, Peter J. 2000. “The effects of completing a capstone course on student identity.” Sociology of Education 73 (4): 285-299.

  • Dunlap, Joanna C. 2005. “Problem-Based Learning and Self-Efficacy: How a Capstone Course Prepares Students for a Profession.” Educational Technology Research and Development 53 (1): 65-83. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02504858.

    About this Journal Article:

    Dunlap employed a mixed methods approach to study the self-efficacy of 31 students in a required undergraduate capstone course. She analyzed guided journal submissions and triangulated those responses with student responses to a survey tool called the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, a 10-item scale that “assesses optimistic self-beliefs to cope with a variety of difficult demands in life” (73). Her findingsthat students’ participation in a problem-based learning environment impacts students’ sense of capability, especially looking forward to career prospects and their sense of professional identityoffer data to support why capstones serve as a powerful facilitator of transition for students. While her findings are most specific to problem-based learning, a related high impact practice, their basis in a capstone context may help support the development of positively impactful capstone experiences. 

  • Dunlap, Joanna C, and . 2005. ” Problem-based learning and self-efficacy: How a capstone course prepares students for a profession.” Educational Technology Research & Development 53 (1): 65-85.

  • Henscheid, Jean M., Tracy L. Skipper, and Dallin George Young. 2019. “Reflection, Integration, Application: Intentional Design Strategies for Senior Capstone Experiences.” New Directions for Higher Education 2019 (188): 91-100. https://doi.org/10.1002/he.20349.

    About this Journal Article:

    Henscheid, Skipper, and Young identify the importance of reflection, integration, and application in their piece about Intentional Design Strategies for Senior Capstone Experiences. They suggest that these three elements can aid in developing advanced “analytical and critical thinking, communication skills, employment skills, problem-solving competencies, and team-building.” In addition, in order to foster an environment in which reflection, integration, and application are used to their fullest potential there must be a meaningful educational experience for the student. Something unique and quite important is the acknowledgment that a meaningful educational experience can be different for each individual. Overall, the piece unfolds how to build experiences that “provide structured opportunities for applied learning.”

    The authors describe four capstone experiences that promote application of learning:

    • Independent Research Experiences: Apply what students have learned to   Real world experiences allow the student to expand their knowledge even more.
    • Internships: Allows students to go beyond curriculum and apply what they have learned to the workforce.
    • Service Learning: Apply classroom information to community problems.
    • Preprofessional Capstones: Allow students to apply academic content in real-world contexts attentive to disciplinary or professional standards.

    These experiences, not only are reflective in nature but also suggest that the student take time to reflect on their own interests, needs, and desires, as they move forward in integrating and applying what they have learned.

    This piece expands on different ways in which students can engage in learning experiences that support reflection, integration, and application. Breaking down examples of these types of learning experiences can help us to better understand what elements of those experiences really lend themselves to cycles of reflection, integration, and application.

    Annotation contributed by Sophie Miller, 2021-2024 CEL Student Scholar

  • Julien, Brianna L, Louise Lexis, Johannes Schuijers, Tom Samiric, and Stuart McDonald. 2012. “Using Capstones to Develop Research Skills and Graduate Capabilities: A Case Study from Physiology.” Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice 9 (3): 58-73. https://doi.org/10.53761/1.9.3.6.

    About this Journal Article:

    This case study describes two physiology capstones that culminate the Bachelor of Health Science at La Trobe University. The authors describe the student assessments involved in the capstones and evaluate the program itself based on student performance, student feedback, and faculty perceptions of the course. The authors found that final grades for students were significantly higher in 2011, following the implementation of the capstone course than final grades in the previous two years. Students reported positive skill development and satisfaction, and instructors noticed a higher degree of student-centered learning along with a “vastly increased workload” and “greater need for infrastructure services” (11). The value of this case study is not only the model it provides for capstone development, but also the consideration of staffing and resource needs to support strong capstone experiences. Other institutions looking to launch or revise capstone experiences would do well to recognize this resource challenge.

  • Julien, B. L., L. Lexis, J. Schuijers, T. Samiric, and S. McDonald. 2012. “Using capstones to develop research skills and graduate capabilities: A case study from physiology.” Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice 9 (3): 1-15.

  • Kilgo, Cindy A, Jessica K Ezell Sheets, and Ernest T Pascarella. 2014. “The Link between High-Impact Practices and Student Learning: Some Longitudinal Evidence.” Higher Education 69 (4): 509-525. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-014-9788-z.

    About this Journal Article:

    This study used pre- and post-tests to estimate the efficacy of the 10 high impact practices supported by AAC&U and found that overall, the high impact practices do, in fact, support student learning. They found that active, collaborative learning and undergraduate research were especially effective in promoting critical thinking, cognition, and intercultural effectiveness, while capstones (among other HIPs) had more mixed effects. For capstones in particular, the authors found a negative link to critical thinking, “but positive net association with four-year gains in need for cognition” (519). The authors highlight several other specific positive gains in student learning as a result of capstones, and this data can be especially helpful in advocating not only for the value of capstones themselves, but in the value of intentionally designed capstones. The multi-institutional results help generalize the benefits, and even more importantly point to areas where negative links occurred, suggesting that administration and facilitation are key in capstones actually having high (positive) impact. 

  • Kilgo, Cindy A., Ezell Sheets, Jessica K. , and Pascarella T. Ernest. 2015. “The link between high-impact practices and student learning: Some longitudinal evidence.” Higher Education 69 (4): 509-525.

  • Kirkscey, Russell, Julie Vale, James M. Weiss, and Jennifer Hill. 2021. “Capstone Experience Purposes: An International, Multidisciplinary Study.” Teaching & Learning Inquiry 9 (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.20343/teachlearninqu.9.2.19.

  • Laye, Matthew J., Caroline Boswell, Morgan Gresham, Dawn Smith-Sherwood, and Olivia S. Anderson. 2020. “Multi-Institutional Survey of Faculty Experiences Teaching Capstones.” College Teaching 68 (4): 201-213. https://doi.org/10.1080/87567555.2020.1786663.

  • Lee, Nicolette, and Daniel Loton. 2017. “Capstone Purposes across Disciplines.” Studies in Higher Education 44 (1): 134-50. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2017.1347155.

    About this Journal Article:

    This literature review analyzes the purposes of capstones as presented by faculty involved in capstone design and instruction. This review is valuable in offering a broad overview of capstone literature and present understandings—for example, capstones are frequently linked to development of employability skills and personal student attributes. In addition to a review of the literature, Lee and Loton conducted an online survey of 216 capstone educators internationally (with just over threequarters originating from Australia, the authors’ base). Here, they found the 20 most highly rated purposes for capstones were similarly rated across disciplinary groupsimplying they serve a common purpose regardless of discipline. The survey responses echoed what has been focused on broadly in the literature and adds some nuance that will be useful to readers seeking to understand capstones at an introductory level. Finally, the purposes raised may help designers of capstones identify shared purposes from which to backward design the capstone experience. 

  • Lee, Nicolette, and Daniel Loton. 2017. “Capstone purposes across disciplines.” Studies in Higher Education: 1-17.

  • Paris, David, and Ann Ferren. 2013. “How Students, Faculty, and Institutions Can Fulfill the Promise of Capstones.” Peer Review 15 (4). https://www.aacu.org/publications-research/periodicals/how-students-faculty-and-institutions-can-fulfill-promise.

    About this Journal Article:

    This article offers a useful analysis of the capstone experience broadly, offering some recent historical context for capstones as well as recommendations for where they are headed today based on practice examples found across the United States. For American readers in particular, this analysis will offer some helpful comparisons to programs in a more familiar context. Unlike some of the heavier and formal research-centered pieces, another benefit of this article is its accessibility, due in large part because it serves to introduce a whole issue of Peer Review focused on capstone experiences. Paris and Ferren’s focus on the faculty-student relationship within capstones may be especially useful to readers, as it’s a lens of capstones not frequently seen in other literature and may be a key element in what makes capstones a high impact practice. 

  • Paris, David, and Ann Ferren. 2013. “How students, faculty, and institutions can fulfill the promise of capstones.” Peer Review, 15 (4).

  • Rash, Agnes, and Kathryn Weld. 2013. “The Capstone Course: Origins, Goals, Methods, and Issues.” PRIMUS 23 (4): 291-96. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511970.2013.775203.

    About this Journal Article:

    This is an introduction to a special issue on capstone courses, which describes a range of models, common goals across capstones, popular teaching methods used in capstones, the value of capstones as a way to assess a curricular program, and issues related to faculty development. The curricular focus, mathematics, is somewhat unique and so may be especially useful for instructors who come with a strong disciplinary connection and are unsure of how capstones may fit into or enhance the content they hope to impart on students. An interesting and also unique aspect of this piece is the acknowledgement of capstones’ value in program assessment. For administrators in particular, this may be a helpful argument for an added benefit of capstones beyond student learning directly associated with the course. This article, as with several others, is explicit in framing the teaching of capstones as more of a mentorship relationship–an idea that would be worth following up on in future research. 

  • Rash, Agnes, and Kathryn Weld. 2013. “The capstone course: Origins, goals, methods, and issues.” PRIMUS 23 (4): 291-296.

  • Redman, Peggy. 2013. “Going beyond the Requirement: The Capstone Experience.” Peer Review 15 (4). https://www.aacu.org/publications-research/periodicals/going-beyond-requirement-capstone-experience.

    About this Journal Article:

    This case study describes capstones across the curriculum and educational levels (bachelors, master’s, and doctoral) at the University of La Verne in southern California. By looking at the 127 capstone projects that students produced (41 undergraduate), Redman analyzed student writing and learning. As a result of the findings associated with this analysis, the university adapted a more integrated and reflective process across all four years to prepare students for their final capstone. This piece serves as a valuable model for thoughtfully embedding and scaffolding the capstone experience not only in the final year, but from a student’s first experience on campus. Additionally, the piece offers innovative ideas for linking capstones to other high impact practices such as community partnerships (service-learning) and ePortfolios. 

  • Redman, Peggy. 2013. “Going beyond the requirement: The capstone experience.” Peer Review 15 (4).

  • Upson-Saia, Kristi. 2013. “The Capstone Experience for the Religious Studies Major.” Teaching Theology & Religion 16 (1): 3-17. https://doi.org/10.1111/teth.12001.

    About this Journal Article:

    This study examines capstone experiences for religious studies majors at 29 different U.S. institutions. Upson-Saia not only explores the strengths across these experiences, and the factors that set apart especially successful programs, but also takes an explicit focus on “the most frustrating aspects of the capstone” and “how some departments avoid such frustrations” (4). Unlike Lee and Loton (2017), who found strong consensus among the top purposes of capstones, Upson-Saia found little consensus among religious studies capstones beyond “culmination” in their educational objectives. This may be a difference in scale–on a smaller scale, more variation is visible–or in context. Perhaps authors have similar ideas about what should be talked about in published articles, but in practice, there may be more variation in purpose. Interestingly, Upson-Saia discusses one of the themes Lee and Loton raised about the pressures put on the capstone: suggesting that frustrations about the capstone as not going well, or doing as much as it could, stem from those pressures for capstone to be doing everything. She takes a historical lens in her response to this, exploring the evolution of capstones and their purposes through history to think through how capstones may be positioned today. Her resulting list of best practices for religious studies capstones may be adapted across disciplinary contexts and offer a useful starting point for people designing and developing capstones. 

  • Upson-Saia, Kristi. 2013. “The capstone experience for the religious studies major.” Teaching Theology & Religion 16 (1): 3-17.

  • Vale, Julie, Karen Gordon, Russell Kirkscey, and Jennifer Hill. 2020. “Student and Faculty Perceptions of Capstone Purposes: What Can Engineering Learn From Other Disciplines?” Proceedings of the Canadian Engineering Education Association (CEEA) Conference 2020: 1-8. https://doi.org/10.24908/pceea.vi0.14149.

  • Young, Dallin George, Jasmin K Chung, Dory E Hoffman, and Ryan Bronkema. 2017. 2016 National Survey of Senior Capstone Experiences: Expanding our Understanding of Culminating Experiences. Columbia, SC: National Resource Center for the First-Year Experience and Students in Transition.

    About this Book:

    This publication reports on the 2016 National Survey of Senior Capstone Experiences conducted by the National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition. The survey previously was administered in 1999 and 2011. It reports on capstones in curricular and co-curricular higher education programs, including objectives for the capstone experiences, types of capstone by field of study, and percentage of seniors participating in capstones.


Category List (Multiple Categories Selected – Capstone Experiences & Global Learning)

  • Berdrow, Iris, Rebecca Cruise, Ekaterina Levintova, Sabine Smith, Laura Boudon, Dan Paracka, and Paul M. Worley. 2020. “Exploring Patterns of Student Global Learning Choices: A Multi-Institutional Study.” In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.

    About this Book Chapter:

    A combination of institutional and individual factors matter in making choices to pursue study away. A holistic approach to global learning including both classroom and co-curricular opportunities is superior to efforts only to increase study abroad numbers. These holistic approaches can benefit both students who do study abroad and those who do not.

  • Butler, Des, Sandra Coe, Rachael Field, Judith McNamara, Sally Kift, and Catherine Brown. 2017. “Embodying Life-Long Learning: Transition and Capstone Experiences.” Oxford Review of Education 43 (2): 194-208. https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2016.1270199.

    About this Journal Article:

    This case study describes the first of six principles, which informed the development of a capstone design for Australian legal education, and according to the authors, should inform the development of any capstone. The authors focus on Transition–the first of their selected principles–as a theoretical framework for the pedagogical design they develop. They extend Kift’s Transition Pedagogy, an adaptation of Schlossberg that focuses on first year students, to inform final year practices—viewing final year students as students in transition, too. The authors identify three areas in which the incorporation of transition pedagogy can enhance a capstone experience and help students manage uncertainty, complexity, and change; develop a professional identity; and career plan. While the case study doesn’t cover the implementation of the capstone design, the study can offer a useful model for capstone development. Additionally, the transition framework does a helpful job of linking student development theory (and Schlossberg’s theory of transition) with pedagogy and ends with qualitative data from students as evidence of the necessity of the framework.

  • Des, Butler , Sandra Coe, Rachael Field, Judith McNamara, Sally Kift, and Catherine Brown. 2017. “Embodying life-long learning.” Transition and capstone experiences, Oxford Review of Education 43 (2): 194-208.

  • Collier, Peter J. 2000. “The Effects of Completing a Capstone Course on Student Identity.” Sociology of Education 73 (4): 285-299. https://doi.org/10.2307/2673235.

    About this Journal Article:

    Collier’s article studies the effect of participation in a capstone experience on undergraduate students’ identification as a college student. He proposes that the increased identification with this role by capstone students over time indicate capstones’ effectiveness in socialization. Using different identity theories around role identities and role-identity acquisition as theoretical frameworks, Collier developed a longitudinal study of 26 senior capstone students (multidisciplinary and across the university) of one year’s capstone at a university, with a nonequivalent control group (n=26). Using pre- and post-measurements, Collier found that the nature of the capstone as a grounded and experiential course contributed to its transformative impact on students. Students connecting with the community in a capstone context were pushed to work more collaboratively, and this social aspect of their learning and work helped them to associate more strongly with the role of college student. The development of identity as a student is a potential strength of capstones. However, Collier fails to discuss why developing a student identity–especially in the senior year–is a worthwhile or positive practice, nor does he discuss how that student identity intersects with other social identities a student may hold. Collier does offer several practical implications for curriculum and specifically capstone development.

  • Collier, Peter J. 2000. “The effects of completing a capstone course on student identity.” Sociology of Education 73 (4): 285-299.

  • Deardorff, Darla K., and Dawn Michele Whitehead. 2020. “Expanding the Perceptions and Realities of Global Learning: Connecting Disciplines Through Integrative Global Learning and Assessment.” In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.

    About this Book Chapter:

    This chapter provides a broad perspective on assessing global learning. Whitehead and Deardorff suggest having input on assessment from a variety of sources including students, educators, administrators, and staff and designing holistic models of assessment that extend beyond the learner’s college or university years.

  • Drake Gobbo, Linda, and Joseph G. Hoff. 2020. “Approaching Internationalization as an Ecosystem.” In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.

    About this Book Chapter:

    A Global Learning Ecosystem comprises administrative, curricular, and co-curricular efforts within a college or university. Internationalization, including enrolling international students who join in creating global learning for themselves and for students who do not leave campus, is a useful way of considering global learning. Faculty and staff development and attention to programming across the ecosystem can enhance global learning both on and off campus.

  • Dunlap, Joanna C. 2005. “Problem-Based Learning and Self-Efficacy: How a Capstone Course Prepares Students for a Profession.” Educational Technology Research and Development 53 (1): 65-83. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02504858.

    About this Journal Article:

    Dunlap employed a mixed methods approach to study the self-efficacy of 31 students in a required undergraduate capstone course. She analyzed guided journal submissions and triangulated those responses with student responses to a survey tool called the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, a 10-item scale that “assesses optimistic self-beliefs to cope with a variety of difficult demands in life” (73). Her findingsthat students’ participation in a problem-based learning environment impacts students’ sense of capability, especially looking forward to career prospects and their sense of professional identityoffer data to support why capstones serve as a powerful facilitator of transition for students. While her findings are most specific to problem-based learning, a related high impact practice, their basis in a capstone context may help support the development of positively impactful capstone experiences. 

  • Dunlap, Joanna C, and . 2005. ” Problem-based learning and self-efficacy: How a capstone course prepares students for a profession.” Educational Technology Research & Development 53 (1): 65-85.

  • Henscheid, Jean M., Tracy L. Skipper, and Dallin George Young. 2019. “Reflection, Integration, Application: Intentional Design Strategies for Senior Capstone Experiences.” New Directions for Higher Education 2019 (188): 91-100. https://doi.org/10.1002/he.20349.

    About this Journal Article:

    Henscheid, Skipper, and Young identify the importance of reflection, integration, and application in their piece about Intentional Design Strategies for Senior Capstone Experiences. They suggest that these three elements can aid in developing advanced “analytical and critical thinking, communication skills, employment skills, problem-solving competencies, and team-building.” In addition, in order to foster an environment in which reflection, integration, and application are used to their fullest potential there must be a meaningful educational experience for the student. Something unique and quite important is the acknowledgment that a meaningful educational experience can be different for each individual. Overall, the piece unfolds how to build experiences that “provide structured opportunities for applied learning.”

    The authors describe four capstone experiences that promote application of learning:

    • Independent Research Experiences: Apply what students have learned to   Real world experiences allow the student to expand their knowledge even more.
    • Internships: Allows students to go beyond curriculum and apply what they have learned to the workforce.
    • Service Learning: Apply classroom information to community problems.
    • Preprofessional Capstones: Allow students to apply academic content in real-world contexts attentive to disciplinary or professional standards.

    These experiences, not only are reflective in nature but also suggest that the student take time to reflect on their own interests, needs, and desires, as they move forward in integrating and applying what they have learned.

    This piece expands on different ways in which students can engage in learning experiences that support reflection, integration, and application. Breaking down examples of these types of learning experiences can help us to better understand what elements of those experiences really lend themselves to cycles of reflection, integration, and application.

    Annotation contributed by Sophie Miller, 2021-2024 CEL Student Scholar

  • Holgate, Horane, Heidi E. Parker, and Charles A. Calahan. 2020. “Assessing Global Competency Development in Diverse Learning Environments.” In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.

    About this Book Chapter:

    This chapter presents three short scales assessing civic engagement, intercultural knowledge and intercultural competence, all based on AAC&U VALUE rubrics. These scales, which are free to access and use, are suitable for assessing a variety of global learning contexts.

  • Julien, Brianna L, Louise Lexis, Johannes Schuijers, Tom Samiric, and Stuart McDonald. 2012. “Using Capstones to Develop Research Skills and Graduate Capabilities: A Case Study from Physiology.” Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice 9 (3): 58-73. https://doi.org/10.53761/1.9.3.6.

    About this Journal Article:

    This case study describes two physiology capstones that culminate the Bachelor of Health Science at La Trobe University. The authors describe the student assessments involved in the capstones and evaluate the program itself based on student performance, student feedback, and faculty perceptions of the course. The authors found that final grades for students were significantly higher in 2011, following the implementation of the capstone course than final grades in the previous two years. Students reported positive skill development and satisfaction, and instructors noticed a higher degree of student-centered learning along with a “vastly increased workload” and “greater need for infrastructure services” (11). The value of this case study is not only the model it provides for capstone development, but also the consideration of staffing and resource needs to support strong capstone experiences. Other institutions looking to launch or revise capstone experiences would do well to recognize this resource challenge.

  • Julien, B. L., L. Lexis, J. Schuijers, T. Samiric, and S. McDonald. 2012. “Using capstones to develop research skills and graduate capabilities: A case study from physiology.” Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice 9 (3): 1-15.

  • Kilgo, Cindy A, Jessica K Ezell Sheets, and Ernest T Pascarella. 2014. “The Link between High-Impact Practices and Student Learning: Some Longitudinal Evidence.” Higher Education 69 (4): 509-525. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-014-9788-z.

    About this Journal Article:

    This study used pre- and post-tests to estimate the efficacy of the 10 high impact practices supported by AAC&U and found that overall, the high impact practices do, in fact, support student learning. They found that active, collaborative learning and undergraduate research were especially effective in promoting critical thinking, cognition, and intercultural effectiveness, while capstones (among other HIPs) had more mixed effects. For capstones in particular, the authors found a negative link to critical thinking, “but positive net association with four-year gains in need for cognition” (519). The authors highlight several other specific positive gains in student learning as a result of capstones, and this data can be especially helpful in advocating not only for the value of capstones themselves, but in the value of intentionally designed capstones. The multi-institutional results help generalize the benefits, and even more importantly point to areas where negative links occurred, suggesting that administration and facilitation are key in capstones actually having high (positive) impact. 

  • Kilgo, Cindy A., Ezell Sheets, Jessica K. , and Pascarella T. Ernest. 2015. “The link between high-impact practices and student learning: Some longitudinal evidence.” Higher Education 69 (4): 509-525.

  • Kirkscey, Russell, Julie Vale, James M. Weiss, and Jennifer Hill. 2021. “Capstone Experience Purposes: An International, Multidisciplinary Study.” Teaching & Learning Inquiry 9 (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.20343/teachlearninqu.9.2.19.

  • Laye, Matthew J., Caroline Boswell, Morgan Gresham, Dawn Smith-Sherwood, and Olivia S. Anderson. 2020. “Multi-Institutional Survey of Faculty Experiences Teaching Capstones.” College Teaching 68 (4): 201-213. https://doi.org/10.1080/87567555.2020.1786663.

  • Layne, Prudence, Sarah Glasco, Joan Gillespie, Dana Gross, and Lisa Jasinski. 2020. “#FacultyMatter: Faculty Support and Interventions Integrated into Global Learning.” In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.

    About this Book Chapter:

    Like their students, faculty are also global learners. As such, scholars need to investigate the impact of teaching in disorienting settings on faculty and that colleges and universities need to provide professional development in pedagogy appropriate to these contexts and to facilitate opportunities for faculty to reflect on and process the experiences.

  • Lee, Nicolette, and Daniel Loton. 2017. “Capstone Purposes across Disciplines.” Studies in Higher Education 44 (1): 134-50. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2017.1347155.

    About this Journal Article:

    This literature review analyzes the purposes of capstones as presented by faculty involved in capstone design and instruction. This review is valuable in offering a broad overview of capstone literature and present understandings—for example, capstones are frequently linked to development of employability skills and personal student attributes. In addition to a review of the literature, Lee and Loton conducted an online survey of 216 capstone educators internationally (with just over threequarters originating from Australia, the authors’ base). Here, they found the 20 most highly rated purposes for capstones were similarly rated across disciplinary groupsimplying they serve a common purpose regardless of discipline. The survey responses echoed what has been focused on broadly in the literature and adds some nuance that will be useful to readers seeking to understand capstones at an introductory level. Finally, the purposes raised may help designers of capstones identify shared purposes from which to backward design the capstone experience. 

  • Lee, Nicolette, and Daniel Loton. 2017. “Capstone purposes across disciplines.” Studies in Higher Education: 1-17.

  • Levintova, Ekaterina, Sabine Smith, Rebecca Cruise, Iris Berdrow, Laura Boudon, Dan Paracka, and Paul M. Worley. 2020. “Have Interest, Will NOT Travel: Unexpected Reasons Why Students Opt Out of International Study.” In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.

    About this Book Chapter:

    Some factors like military experience, family responsibilities, health concerns, and being a student athlete can preclude international study for some students. Universities can help students integrate previous experiences like military deployment or international family travel with other high-impact practices like internships and service-learning. They can also ameliorate some of the scheduling and responsibility concerns for students who do want to travel for study.

  • Manning, Scott, Zachary Frieders, and Lynette Bikos. 2020. “When Does Global Learning Begin? Recognizing the Value of Student Experiences Prior to Study Away.” In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.

    About this Book Chapter:

    When you ask students to describe valuable experiences in preparing for study away, previous travel and encounters with diversity matter and should be considered when developing pre-departure experiences. Institutions and instructors can use a strengths-based focus to help students to transfer what they have learned from previous domestic and international experiences.

  • Moore, Jessie L. 2020. “Epilogue: Global Learning as High-Quality Engaged Learning.” In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, 189-194. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

  • Namaste, Nina, and Amanda Sturgill. 2020. “Introduction.” In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.

    About this Book Chapter:

    Key issues in understanding study away today include: the artificial silos between international and domestic off-campus study and the need to understand study away in the context of the changing world of higher education in general. In particular, study away is no longer the extended time abroad that has been the focus of earlier studies. This volume explores factors related to students, faculty and programs that provide off-campus learning at home and abroad.

  • Namaste, Nina B. 2017. “Designing and Evaluating Students’ Transformative Learning.” The Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning 8 (3). http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cjsotl_rcacea/vol8/iss3/5/.

  • Namaste, Nina, and Amanda Sturgill. 2020. “Opportunities and Challenges of Ethical, Effective Global Learning.” In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.

    About this Book Chapter:

    Quality study away needs to address a set of ethical imperatives including rejecting colonialist models in favor of seeking reciprocity, using high-quality research findings to maximize learning from both domestic and international off-campus experiences, and intentionally integrating both kinds of study away with the larger college and university experience.

  • Paras, Andrea, and Lynne Mitchell. 2020. “Up for the Challenge? The Role of Disorientation and Dissonance in Intercultural Learning.” In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.

    About this Book Chapter:

    Experiences of cognitive dissonance can help explain shifts in development of intercultural competence. Quality global learning experiences should embrace opportunities to encounter and be made uncomfortable by difference and encourage students to recognize dissonance when it occurs.

  • Paris, David, and Ann Ferren. 2013. “How Students, Faculty, and Institutions Can Fulfill the Promise of Capstones.” Peer Review 15 (4). https://www.aacu.org/publications-research/periodicals/how-students-faculty-and-institutions-can-fulfill-promise.

    About this Journal Article:

    This article offers a useful analysis of the capstone experience broadly, offering some recent historical context for capstones as well as recommendations for where they are headed today based on practice examples found across the United States. For American readers in particular, this analysis will offer some helpful comparisons to programs in a more familiar context. Unlike some of the heavier and formal research-centered pieces, another benefit of this article is its accessibility, due in large part because it serves to introduce a whole issue of Peer Review focused on capstone experiences. Paris and Ferren’s focus on the faculty-student relationship within capstones may be especially useful to readers, as it’s a lens of capstones not frequently seen in other literature and may be a key element in what makes capstones a high impact practice. 

  • Paris, David, and Ann Ferren. 2013. “How students, faculty, and institutions can fulfill the promise of capstones.” Peer Review, 15 (4).

  • Rash, Agnes, and Kathryn Weld. 2013. “The Capstone Course: Origins, Goals, Methods, and Issues.” PRIMUS 23 (4): 291-96. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511970.2013.775203.

    About this Journal Article:

    This is an introduction to a special issue on capstone courses, which describes a range of models, common goals across capstones, popular teaching methods used in capstones, the value of capstones as a way to assess a curricular program, and issues related to faculty development. The curricular focus, mathematics, is somewhat unique and so may be especially useful for instructors who come with a strong disciplinary connection and are unsure of how capstones may fit into or enhance the content they hope to impart on students. An interesting and also unique aspect of this piece is the acknowledgement of capstones’ value in program assessment. For administrators in particular, this may be a helpful argument for an added benefit of capstones beyond student learning directly associated with the course. This article, as with several others, is explicit in framing the teaching of capstones as more of a mentorship relationship–an idea that would be worth following up on in future research. 

  • Rash, Agnes, and Kathryn Weld. 2013. “The capstone course: Origins, goals, methods, and issues.” PRIMUS 23 (4): 291-296.

  • Rathburn, Melanie, Jodi Malmgren, Ashley Brenner, Michael Carignan, Jane Hardy, and Andrea Paras. 2020. “Assessing Intercultural Competence in Student Writing: A Multi-Institutional Study.” In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.

    About this Book Chapter:

    When working with short-term, faculty-led programs, written reflective writing and opportunities for working with local communities enhance global learning. Service-learning, which can be done in both international and domestic contexts, causes greater shifts in perspective and enhanced demonstration of ability to adapt behavior and manage emotions in different contexts.

  • Redman, Peggy. 2013. “Going beyond the Requirement: The Capstone Experience.” Peer Review 15 (4). https://www.aacu.org/publications-research/periodicals/going-beyond-requirement-capstone-experience.

    About this Journal Article:

    This case study describes capstones across the curriculum and educational levels (bachelors, master’s, and doctoral) at the University of La Verne in southern California. By looking at the 127 capstone projects that students produced (41 undergraduate), Redman analyzed student writing and learning. As a result of the findings associated with this analysis, the university adapted a more integrated and reflective process across all four years to prepare students for their final capstone. This piece serves as a valuable model for thoughtfully embedding and scaffolding the capstone experience not only in the final year, but from a student’s first experience on campus. Additionally, the piece offers innovative ideas for linking capstones to other high impact practices such as community partnerships (service-learning) and ePortfolios. 

  • Redman, Peggy. 2013. “Going beyond the requirement: The capstone experience.” Peer Review 15 (4).

  • Sturgill, Amanda. 2020. “Crossing Borders at Home: The Promise of Global Learning Close to Campus.” In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.

    About this Book Chapter:

    Learners don’t have to cross geopolitical borders to be global learners, which is good news for students whose degree plans, life factors, or finances preclude international travel. This chapter explores some of the types of global learning possible without even leaving the town, offering results that suggest that quality domestic off-campus study CAN produce change towards intercultural competency.

  • Upson-Saia, Kristi. 2013. “The Capstone Experience for the Religious Studies Major.” Teaching Theology & Religion 16 (1): 3-17. https://doi.org/10.1111/teth.12001.

    About this Journal Article:

    This study examines capstone experiences for religious studies majors at 29 different U.S. institutions. Upson-Saia not only explores the strengths across these experiences, and the factors that set apart especially successful programs, but also takes an explicit focus on “the most frustrating aspects of the capstone” and “how some departments avoid such frustrations” (4). Unlike Lee and Loton (2017), who found strong consensus among the top purposes of capstones, Upson-Saia found little consensus among religious studies capstones beyond “culmination” in their educational objectives. This may be a difference in scale–on a smaller scale, more variation is visible–or in context. Perhaps authors have similar ideas about what should be talked about in published articles, but in practice, there may be more variation in purpose. Interestingly, Upson-Saia discusses one of the themes Lee and Loton raised about the pressures put on the capstone: suggesting that frustrations about the capstone as not going well, or doing as much as it could, stem from those pressures for capstone to be doing everything. She takes a historical lens in her response to this, exploring the evolution of capstones and their purposes through history to think through how capstones may be positioned today. Her resulting list of best practices for religious studies capstones may be adapted across disciplinary contexts and offer a useful starting point for people designing and developing capstones. 

  • Upson-Saia, Kristi. 2013. “The capstone experience for the religious studies major.” Teaching Theology & Religion 16 (1): 3-17.

  • Vale, Julie, Karen Gordon, Russell Kirkscey, and Jennifer Hill. 2020. “Student and Faculty Perceptions of Capstone Purposes: What Can Engineering Learn From Other Disciplines?” Proceedings of the Canadian Engineering Education Association (CEEA) Conference 2020: 1-8. https://doi.org/10.24908/pceea.vi0.14149.

  • Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen, Joan Ruelle, and Tim Peeples. 2020. “Mapping Understandings of Global Engagement.” In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.

    About this Book Chapter:

    To define global engagement requires “intentional integration of three critical foundational domains: learning/knowledge, skills/behaviors, and attitudes/dispositions.” Under this definition, global engagement occurs in both international and domestic contexts as students have mentored off- and on-campus experiences.

  • Vercamer, Bert, Linda Stuart, and Hazar Yildrim. 2020. “Global Competence Development: Blended Learning within a Constructivist Paradigm.” In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.

    About this Book Chapter:

    This chapter examines the use of an online preparatory curriculum for study abroad that mixes informative materials, peer learning, and cultural mentoring. The authors find that this type of curriculum improves both culture-specific and culture-general learning.

  • Young, Dallin George, Jasmin K Chung, Dory E Hoffman, and Ryan Bronkema. 2017. 2016 National Survey of Senior Capstone Experiences: Expanding our Understanding of Culminating Experiences. Columbia, SC: National Resource Center for the First-Year Experience and Students in Transition.

    About this Book:

    This publication reports on the 2016 National Survey of Senior Capstone Experiences conducted by the National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition. The survey previously was administered in 1999 and 2011. It reports on capstones in curricular and co-curricular higher education programs, including objectives for the capstone experiences, types of capstone by field of study, and percentage of seniors participating in capstones.


Category List (Only Featured Items from Category)

  • Ash, Sarah L., and Patti H. Clayton. 2004. “The Articulated Learning: An approach to Guided Reflection and Assessment.” Innovative Higher Education 29 (2): 137-154.

    About this Journal Article:

    Reflection is an integral aspect of service-learning, but it does not simply happen by telling students to reflect. This paper describes the risks involved in poor quality reflection and explains the results of rigorous reflection. A rigorous reflection framework is introduced that involves objectively describing an experience, analyzing the experience, and then articulating learning outcomes according to guiding questions.

  • Celio, Christine I., Joseph Durlak, and Allison Dymnicki. 2011. “A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Service-Learning on Students.” Journal of Experiential Education 34 (2): 164-181.

    About this Journal Article:

    For those seeking empirical data regarding the value of service-learning, this meta-analysis provides considerable evidence. Representing data from 11,837 students, this meta-analysis of 62 studies identified five areas of gain for students who took service-learning courses as compared to control groups who did not. The students in service-learning courses demonstrated significant gains in their self-esteem and self-efficacy, educational engagement, altruism, cultural proficiency, and academic achievement. Studies of service-learning courses that implemented best practices (e.g., supporting students in connecting curriculum with the service, incorporating the voice of students in the service-learning project, welcoming community involvement in the project, and requiring reflection) had higher effect sizes.

  • Cress, Christine M., Peter J. Collier, Vicki L. Reitenauer, and Associates, eds. 2013. Learning through Service: A Student Guidebook for Service-Learning and Civic Engagement across Academic Disciplines and Cultural Communities, 2nd ed. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

    About this Edited Book:

    Although written for students to promote an understanding of their community service through reflection and their personal development as citizens who share expertise with compassion, this text is also useful for faculty. Among the many topics addressed, it provides descriptions of service-learning and civic engagement, explains how to establish and deepen community partnerships, and challenges students to navigate difference in ways that unpack privilege and analyze power dynamics that often surface in service-learning and civic engagement. Written in an accessible style, it is good first text for learning about service-learning and civic engagement.

  • Delano-Oriaran, Omobolade, Marguerite W Penick-Parks, and Suzanne Fondrie, eds. 2015. The SAGE Sourcebook of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

    About this Edited Book:

    This tome contains 58 chapters on a variety of aspects related to service-learning and civic engagement. The intended audience is faculty in higher education and faculty in P-12 schools, as well as directors of service-learning or civic engagement centers in universities or school districts. The SAGE Sourcebook of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement outlines several theoretical models on the themes of service-learning and civic engagement, provides guides that faculty can employ when developing service-learning projects, shares ideas for program development, and offers numerous resources that faculty can use. Parts I – IV of the sourcebook are directed toward general information about service-learning and civic engagement, including aspects of implementation; parts V – VIII describe programs and issues related to the use of service-learning or civic engagement within disciplines or divisions; part IX addresses international service-learning; and part X discusses sustainability.

  • Felten, Peter, and Patti H. Clayton. 2011. “Service-Learning.” New Directions for Teaching and Learning 128: 75-84. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/tl.470.

    About this Journal Article:

    Felten and Clayton define service-learning, describe its essential aspects, and review the empirical evidence supporting this pedagogy. Both affective and cognitive aspects of growth are examined in their review. The authors conclude that effectively designed service-learning has considerable potential to promote transformation for all involved, including those who mentor students during the service-learning experience.

  • Jacoby, Barbara. 2015. Service-learning essentials: Questions, answers and lessons learned. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    About this Book:

    Arranged as a series of questions and answers about service-learning, this text shares research and the author’s personal wisdom gathered over decades of experience in service-learning. Faculty members who are new to service-learning will learn the basics of this pedagogy. Those with experience will discover ways to refine and improve their implementation of service-learning. All aspects of service-learning are clearly explained in this accessible text, including advise for overcoming obstacles.

  • Jones, Susan R. 2002. “The Underside of Service-Learning.” About Campus 7 (4): 10-15.

    About this Journal Article:

    Although an older publication, this article is not outdated. Jones describes how some students resist examining assumptions and refuse to see how their beliefs perpetuate negative stereotypes. These students challenge both the faculty member teaching the service-learning course and classmates. Jones discusses the need for faculty to anticipate how to respond to students’ racist or homophobic comments in a way that acknowledges where the students are developmentally, while also honoring the complexity involved. Additionally, the author recommends that faculty examine their own background and level of development relative to issues of privilege and power that can arise in service-learning pedagogy.

  • McDonald, James, and Lynn Dominguez. 2015. “Developing University and Community Partnerships: A Critical Piece of Successful Service Learning.” Journal of College Science Teaching 44 (3): 52-56.

    About this Journal Article:

    Developing a positive partnership with a community organization is a critical aspect service-learning. McDonald and Dominguez discuss best practice for service-learning and explain a framework for developing a successful partnership in the community. Faculty need to

    1. Identify the objectives of the course that will be met through service,
    2. Identify the community organization whose mission or self-identified need can be address with service-learning,
    3. Define the purpose of the project, the roles, responsibilities and benefits of individuals involved,
    4. Maintain regular communication with the community partner, and
    5. Invite the community partner to the culminating student presentation on their service-learning.

    Two service-learning projects, one for an environmental course and another for an elementary methods science course, are described along with the positive outcomes for students and community partners.


Category List (Only Featured Items from Category with Link to Category Page)

  • Ash, Sarah L., and Patti H. Clayton. 2004. “The Articulated Learning: An approach to Guided Reflection and Assessment.” Innovative Higher Education 29 (2): 137-154.

    About this Journal Article:

    Reflection is an integral aspect of service-learning, but it does not simply happen by telling students to reflect. This paper describes the risks involved in poor quality reflection and explains the results of rigorous reflection. A rigorous reflection framework is introduced that involves objectively describing an experience, analyzing the experience, and then articulating learning outcomes according to guiding questions.

  • Celio, Christine I., Joseph Durlak, and Allison Dymnicki. 2011. “A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Service-Learning on Students.” Journal of Experiential Education 34 (2): 164-181.

    About this Journal Article:

    For those seeking empirical data regarding the value of service-learning, this meta-analysis provides considerable evidence. Representing data from 11,837 students, this meta-analysis of 62 studies identified five areas of gain for students who took service-learning courses as compared to control groups who did not. The students in service-learning courses demonstrated significant gains in their self-esteem and self-efficacy, educational engagement, altruism, cultural proficiency, and academic achievement. Studies of service-learning courses that implemented best practices (e.g., supporting students in connecting curriculum with the service, incorporating the voice of students in the service-learning project, welcoming community involvement in the project, and requiring reflection) had higher effect sizes.

  • Cress, Christine M., Peter J. Collier, Vicki L. Reitenauer, and Associates, eds. 2013. Learning through Service: A Student Guidebook for Service-Learning and Civic Engagement across Academic Disciplines and Cultural Communities, 2nd ed. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

    About this Edited Book:

    Although written for students to promote an understanding of their community service through reflection and their personal development as citizens who share expertise with compassion, this text is also useful for faculty. Among the many topics addressed, it provides descriptions of service-learning and civic engagement, explains how to establish and deepen community partnerships, and challenges students to navigate difference in ways that unpack privilege and analyze power dynamics that often surface in service-learning and civic engagement. Written in an accessible style, it is good first text for learning about service-learning and civic engagement.

  • Delano-Oriaran, Omobolade, Marguerite W Penick-Parks, and Suzanne Fondrie, eds. 2015. The SAGE Sourcebook of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

    About this Edited Book:

    This tome contains 58 chapters on a variety of aspects related to service-learning and civic engagement. The intended audience is faculty in higher education and faculty in P-12 schools, as well as directors of service-learning or civic engagement centers in universities or school districts. The SAGE Sourcebook of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement outlines several theoretical models on the themes of service-learning and civic engagement, provides guides that faculty can employ when developing service-learning projects, shares ideas for program development, and offers numerous resources that faculty can use. Parts I – IV of the sourcebook are directed toward general information about service-learning and civic engagement, including aspects of implementation; parts V – VIII describe programs and issues related to the use of service-learning or civic engagement within disciplines or divisions; part IX addresses international service-learning; and part X discusses sustainability.

  • Felten, Peter, and Patti H. Clayton. 2011. “Service-Learning.” New Directions for Teaching and Learning 128: 75-84. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/tl.470.

    About this Journal Article:

    Felten and Clayton define service-learning, describe its essential aspects, and review the empirical evidence supporting this pedagogy. Both affective and cognitive aspects of growth are examined in their review. The authors conclude that effectively designed service-learning has considerable potential to promote transformation for all involved, including those who mentor students during the service-learning experience.

  • Jacoby, Barbara. 2015. Service-learning essentials: Questions, answers and lessons learned. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    About this Book:

    Arranged as a series of questions and answers about service-learning, this text shares research and the author’s personal wisdom gathered over decades of experience in service-learning. Faculty members who are new to service-learning will learn the basics of this pedagogy. Those with experience will discover ways to refine and improve their implementation of service-learning. All aspects of service-learning are clearly explained in this accessible text, including advise for overcoming obstacles.

  • Jones, Susan R. 2002. “The Underside of Service-Learning.” About Campus 7 (4): 10-15.

    About this Journal Article:

    Although an older publication, this article is not outdated. Jones describes how some students resist examining assumptions and refuse to see how their beliefs perpetuate negative stereotypes. These students challenge both the faculty member teaching the service-learning course and classmates. Jones discusses the need for faculty to anticipate how to respond to students’ racist or homophobic comments in a way that acknowledges where the students are developmentally, while also honoring the complexity involved. Additionally, the author recommends that faculty examine their own background and level of development relative to issues of privilege and power that can arise in service-learning pedagogy.

  • McDonald, James, and Lynn Dominguez. 2015. “Developing University and Community Partnerships: A Critical Piece of Successful Service Learning.” Journal of College Science Teaching 44 (3): 52-56.

    About this Journal Article:

    Developing a positive partnership with a community organization is a critical aspect service-learning. McDonald and Dominguez discuss best practice for service-learning and explain a framework for developing a successful partnership in the community. Faculty need to

    1. Identify the objectives of the course that will be met through service,
    2. Identify the community organization whose mission or self-identified need can be address with service-learning,
    3. Define the purpose of the project, the roles, responsibilities and benefits of individuals involved,
    4. Maintain regular communication with the community partner, and
    5. Invite the community partner to the culminating student presentation on their service-learning.

    Two service-learning projects, one for an environmental course and another for an elementary methods science course, are described along with the positive outcomes for students and community partners.


Category List (Only Featured Items from Multiple Categories with Links to Category Pages)

  • Ash, Sarah L., and Patti H. Clayton. 2004. “The Articulated Learning: An approach to Guided Reflection and Assessment.” Innovative Higher Education 29 (2): 137-154.

    About this Journal Article:

    Reflection is an integral aspect of service-learning, but it does not simply happen by telling students to reflect. This paper describes the risks involved in poor quality reflection and explains the results of rigorous reflection. A rigorous reflection framework is introduced that involves objectively describing an experience, analyzing the experience, and then articulating learning outcomes according to guiding questions.

  • Bovill, Cathy, and C J Bulley. 2011. “A model of active student participation in curriculum design: exploring desirability and possibility.” In Improving Student Learning (ISL) 18: Global Theories and Local Practices: Institutional, Disciplinary and Cultural Variations, edited by C Rust, 176-188. Oxford: Oxford Brookes University Center for Staff and Learning Development.

    About this Book Chapter:

    The authors of the article explore the desirability and possibility of active student participation (ASP) in curriculum design. They offer the description of the levels or forms of ASP in curriculum design by adapting Sherry Arnstein’s (1969) ladder model of citizen participation from community planning literature.

    The adapted ladder is of particular interest to anyone willing to experiment with active student participation in either planning the entire curriculum, course or modifying some aspects of the course or assignment(s). Although the concept of a ladder might suggest that what’s on upper level is to be considered better, the authors say that this is not the case. Different levels of student participation depend on particular circumstances, faculty goals, etc. depending on institutional setting, faculty member’s comfort level with inviting students to collaborate on course design, the level of maturity and expertise of student body, they further argue that it might be desirable to increase active student participation slowly and in stages (8).

    Bovill and Bulley also give specific examples of what each ladder of ASP might look like in practice. For example, ‘Partnership  – a negotiated curriculum’ could be “student experience and work used as basis for curriculum; students actively and meaningfully negotiating curriculum with tutor” (6); ‘Students in control’ might involve “Student designed learning outcomes and projects. Student led journal clubs, student led journals” (6). They also acknowledge that “[l]ocating examples of this top rung is challenging within the current higher education context, where our systems of quality assurance require courses to be validated and reviewed on the basis of clear intended learning outcomes and assessments”(6).

    As we implement more practices involving students as partners in curriculum design and development, the authors also note that there has to be more research done and evidence collected that evaluates the outcomes from different levels of ASP, as well as faculty and student experiences with partnership and its implications (9).

  • Celio, Christine I., Joseph Durlak, and Allison Dymnicki. 2011. “A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Service-Learning on Students.” Journal of Experiential Education 34 (2): 164-181.

    About this Journal Article:

    For those seeking empirical data regarding the value of service-learning, this meta-analysis provides considerable evidence. Representing data from 11,837 students, this meta-analysis of 62 studies identified five areas of gain for students who took service-learning courses as compared to control groups who did not. The students in service-learning courses demonstrated significant gains in their self-esteem and self-efficacy, educational engagement, altruism, cultural proficiency, and academic achievement. Studies of service-learning courses that implemented best practices (e.g., supporting students in connecting curriculum with the service, incorporating the voice of students in the service-learning project, welcoming community involvement in the project, and requiring reflection) had higher effect sizes.

  • Cook-Sather, Alison, and Zanny Alter. 2011. “What Is and What Can Be: How a Liminal Position Can Change Learning and Teaching in Higher Education.” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 42 (1): 37-53.

    About this Journal Article:

    Alison Cook-Sather and Zanny Alter focus on student experiences as pedagogical consultants in a faculty development program at Bryn Mawr and Haverford Colleges. The authors claim that this type of collaboration between student consultants, faculty and undergraduate students enrolled in a course has “the potential to transform deep-seated societal understandings of education based on traditional hierarchies and teacher/student distinctions” (37). Cook-Sather and Alter borrow anthropological concept of liminality and revise it as “a threshold between and among clearly established roles at which one can linger, from which one can depart and to which one can return,” (38) to describe the shift in the relationship between faculty and students and emphasize the fact that having students as educational consultants falls outside of all previously established roles and categories in higher education system.

    The context of Cook-Sather and Alter’s study is Bryn Mawr and Haverford Colleges’ Student as Learners and Teachers (SaLT) program, which employs students as pedagogical consultants to faculty. Both students and faculty go through an established training process. The authors report several important changes in both, students’ and faculty’s perception of teaching and learning, as well as the relationship between them, as a result of the experience: a) it prompts literal and metaphorical (re)positioning of the student consultants in the classroom, changing their perspective on learning and teaching, as well as their traditional roles as students; b) It exposes the participants to ambiguity and vulnerability, which in the end helps in developing the capacity to be between “all fixed points of classification” (48); c) Student consultants  report becoming better students as they are able to understand better the professors’ perspectives and goals and experience deeper learning as a result of being exposed to multiple angles; d) Faculty report being more willing to shift their teaching and more open to a dialogue with students; move towards less hierarchical and more dialogic understanding of teaching and learning; e) Students report being willing to take more responsibility for their education and active participants in their education.

    In conclusion, the authors argue that such partnerships have a potential to move us toward a more democratic education: the potential to generate a democratic dialogue about teaching and learning between students and faculty.

  • Cook-Sather, Alison, Cathy Bovill, and Peter Felten. 2014. Engaging students as partners in learning and teaching: a guide for faculty. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    About this Book:

    This study written by Alison Cook-Sather, Catherine Bovill and Peter Felten is an invaluable guide for everybody who wishes to develop student-faculty partnership in higher education institutions. Student-faculty partnership is a relatively new concept that recently has gained much popularity in the US and internationally. The authors of Engaging Students as Partners in Learning and teaching: A Guide for Faculty offer theoretical framework for developing such partnerships combined with very practical guidelines for those interested in developing small or large scale partnerships between faculty and students. The authors do an exceptional job of combining theory with practice, grounding their ideas on evidence-based pedagogy, while offering many practical examples for those who are thinking of developing small-scale partnerships with students in their courses or large-scale partnerships on the departmental and university levels.

    Starting with the basic question of how faculty together with students can deepen learning, Cook-Sather, Bovill and Felten offer a compelling analysis of the nature of student-faculty partnerships, the reasons for faculty and for students to embark on such endeavor, and the essential elements for such partnership to be successful. When defining partnership, the authors maintain that there are three important principles to be taken into account: respect, reciprocity and responsibility. All of these basic characteristics of successful partnership set faculty and students up for developing trusting and respectful relationships, for sharing not only power, but also risks and responsibilities for learning.

    Cook-Sather, Bovill, and Felten also recognize the challenges that this type of partnership between faculty and students faces serious challenges in the higher education system in the US and internationally. One of the most interesting claims they make is that such partnership destabilizes the consumerist model of higher education, in which students assume passive role in their process of education being on the receiving side of the expertize that faculty share with them. Unlike this model, faculty-student partnership allows students to have an active role in this process, designing not only what but also how they whish to learn. Such a change in students’ role promotes student engagement resulting in improved learning.

    In various chapters of the book, the authors provide the definition, as well as guiding principles of student-faculty partnerships; answer questions and address concerns of the faculty who might wish to initiate a partnership of this kind; offer various examples of small and large-scale partnerships based on the needs, as well as resources available for individual faculty and for administrators, departments and universities; and detailed guidelines, combined with many examples, for initiating successful student-faculty partnerships on course design, curriculum development and pedagogy.

  • Cress, Christine M., Peter J. Collier, Vicki L. Reitenauer, and Associates, eds. 2013. Learning through Service: A Student Guidebook for Service-Learning and Civic Engagement across Academic Disciplines and Cultural Communities, 2nd ed. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

    About this Edited Book:

    Although written for students to promote an understanding of their community service through reflection and their personal development as citizens who share expertise with compassion, this text is also useful for faculty. Among the many topics addressed, it provides descriptions of service-learning and civic engagement, explains how to establish and deepen community partnerships, and challenges students to navigate difference in ways that unpack privilege and analyze power dynamics that often surface in service-learning and civic engagement. Written in an accessible style, it is good first text for learning about service-learning and civic engagement.

  • Delano-Oriaran, Omobolade, Marguerite W Penick-Parks, and Suzanne Fondrie, eds. 2015. The SAGE Sourcebook of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

    About this Edited Book:

    This tome contains 58 chapters on a variety of aspects related to service-learning and civic engagement. The intended audience is faculty in higher education and faculty in P-12 schools, as well as directors of service-learning or civic engagement centers in universities or school districts. The SAGE Sourcebook of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement outlines several theoretical models on the themes of service-learning and civic engagement, provides guides that faculty can employ when developing service-learning projects, shares ideas for program development, and offers numerous resources that faculty can use. Parts I – IV of the sourcebook are directed toward general information about service-learning and civic engagement, including aspects of implementation; parts V – VIII describe programs and issues related to the use of service-learning or civic engagement within disciplines or divisions; part IX addresses international service-learning; and part X discusses sustainability.

  • Felten, Peter, and Patti H. Clayton. 2011. “Service-Learning.” New Directions for Teaching and Learning 128: 75-84. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/tl.470.

    About this Journal Article:

    Felten and Clayton define service-learning, describe its essential aspects, and review the empirical evidence supporting this pedagogy. Both affective and cognitive aspects of growth are examined in their review. The authors conclude that effectively designed service-learning has considerable potential to promote transformation for all involved, including those who mentor students during the service-learning experience.

  • Jacoby, Barbara. 2015. Service-learning essentials: Questions, answers and lessons learned. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    About this Book:

    Arranged as a series of questions and answers about service-learning, this text shares research and the author’s personal wisdom gathered over decades of experience in service-learning. Faculty members who are new to service-learning will learn the basics of this pedagogy. Those with experience will discover ways to refine and improve their implementation of service-learning. All aspects of service-learning are clearly explained in this accessible text, including advise for overcoming obstacles.

  • Jones, Susan R. 2002. “The Underside of Service-Learning.” About Campus 7 (4): 10-15.

    About this Journal Article:

    Although an older publication, this article is not outdated. Jones describes how some students resist examining assumptions and refuse to see how their beliefs perpetuate negative stereotypes. These students challenge both the faculty member teaching the service-learning course and classmates. Jones discusses the need for faculty to anticipate how to respond to students’ racist or homophobic comments in a way that acknowledges where the students are developmentally, while also honoring the complexity involved. Additionally, the author recommends that faculty examine their own background and level of development relative to issues of privilege and power that can arise in service-learning pedagogy.

  • McDonald, James, and Lynn Dominguez. 2015. “Developing University and Community Partnerships: A Critical Piece of Successful Service Learning.” Journal of College Science Teaching 44 (3): 52-56.

    About this Journal Article:

    Developing a positive partnership with a community organization is a critical aspect service-learning. McDonald and Dominguez discuss best practice for service-learning and explain a framework for developing a successful partnership in the community. Faculty need to

    1. Identify the objectives of the course that will be met through service,
    2. Identify the community organization whose mission or self-identified need can be address with service-learning,
    3. Define the purpose of the project, the roles, responsibilities and benefits of individuals involved,
    4. Maintain regular communication with the community partner, and
    5. Invite the community partner to the culminating student presentation on their service-learning.

    Two service-learning projects, one for an environmental course and another for an elementary methods science course, are described along with the positive outcomes for students and community partners.

  • Werder, Carmen, Shevell Thibou, and Blair Kaufer. 2012. “Students as co-inquirers: A requisite threshold Concept in educational development.” Journal of Faculty Development 26 (3): 34-38.

    About this Journal Article:

    This essay describes Carmen Werder’s, Shevell Thibou’s and Blair Kaufer’s experiences with student-faculty collaborations on course and curricular development and the ways in which these experiences have been transformational for each. This is one of the few studies co-authored by a faculty member, a graduate student and an undergraduate student who participated in student-faculty collaborative process on curricular development. The process was part of the Teaching-Learning Academy (TLA) at Western Washington University. As the authors state, the essay “explores how partnering with students to study teaching and learning constitutes a threshold concept that is trans­formational, irreversible, and discursive”(p. 34).

    The authors consider student-faculty partnership to be “threshold learning” because it opens up new and previously unconceivable ways of understanding something. After the experience with such partnership, both students and faculty comment that there is no way back for them. Students have developed a new and different understanding of their learning and are more enthusiastic, more motivated to learn. They comment that learning, as a result of the partnership, has started to excite them as it turned into a dialogic and community building activity, creating a welcoming space for faculty and students to share freely what they thought and/or knew.

    As the authors reflect on their experience, they point out several important shifts in their understanding of teaching and learning that seem transformational. They start to: a) understand learning as a dialogic experience that is divergent and difference driven; b) question the power structure and the hierarchical dynamics inherent in contemporary education system that make it difficult for students to be active learners; and c) value equality that comes with partnership and that enables all participants to have a voice in the decision making process.


Manual List (Custom List Using Item IDs)

  • Lomicka, Lara, and Jennifer Eidum. 2019. “Pathways to Thriving.” Talking Stick November + December. http://read.nxtbook.com/acuhoi/talking_stick/november_december_2019/pathways_to_thriving.html.

  • Steinberg, Kathryn S., Julie A. Hatcher, and Robert G. Bringle. 2011. “Civic-minded graduate: A north star.” Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning 18 (1): 19-33.

    About this Journal Article:

    Based on a review of literature for civic learning outcomes, the authors of this article propose a model for a civic-minded graduate, which involves the intersection of identify, educational experiences, and civic experiences within a cultural and social context. The authors then outline ten domains of civic learning outcomes organized according to knowledge, skills, dispositions, and behavioral intentions. All ten of the domains are manifest in literature on service-learning and civic engagement. The authors describe the instruments used to measure the civic-minded graduate construct and three studies conducted for the purpose of establishing validity of this construct. The article concludes with implications for practice in programs designed to promote civic development, using the construct of a civic-minded graduate as a metaphorical north star.