CEL facilitates multi-institutional research on engaged learning topics. Participants from institutions around the world collaborate over three years, producing scholarship that shapes research and practice globally.
CEL is home to two book series. In addition, CEL research seminars and other initiatives have produced 100+ publications (to date).
CEL’s concise guides offer research-informed practices for engaged learning.
CEL’s concise guides offer practical strategies for studying engaged learning.
CEL brings together international leaders in higher education to develop, synthesize, and share rigorous research on central questions about student learning.
The CEL Scholar role and CEL Student Scholars program enable Elon faculty and students to deepen their understanding of and professional development in scholarly activity on engaged learning.
Laye, Matthew J., Caroline Boswell, Morgan Gresham, Dawn Smith-Sherwood, and Olivia S. Anderson. 2020. "Multi-Institutional Survey of Faculty Experiences Teaching Capstones." College Teaching. https://doi.org/10.1080/87567555.2020.1786663.
Vale, Julie, Karen Gordon, Russell Kirkscey, and Jennifer Hill. 2020. "Student and Faculty Perceptions of Capstone Purposes: What Can Engineering Learn From Other Disciplines?" Proceedings 2020 Canadian Engineering Education Association CEEA-ACEG20. https://doi.org/10.24908/pceea.vi0.14149.
Bloch-Shulman, Stephen, and Maggie Castor. 2015. "I Am Not Trying to Be Defiant, I Am Trying to Be Your Partner: How to Help Students Navigate Educational Institutions That Do Not Value Democratic Practice." Partnerships: A Journal of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement 6 (1): 161-180.
Bloch-Shulman, Stephen, J. F. Humphrey, Spoma Jovanovic, and Hollyce Giles. 2015. "What Kind of Community? An Inquiry into Teaching Practices that Move beyond Exclusion." Partnerships: A Journal of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement 6 (1): 25-50.
Bloch-Shulman, Stephen, Donna Engelmann, and Maggie Castor. 2010. "Teaching Democratic Thinking." Presentation at American Association of Philosophy Teachers Biennial Conference, Myrtle Beach, SC 2010.
Bloch-Shulman, Stephen, Elizabeth Minnich, Donna Engelmann, Mark Cubberley, and Ed Whitfield. 2010. "Teaching Democratic Thinking." Presentation at Association of American Colleges and Universities Annual Meeting, Washington, DC 2010.
Bloch-Shulman, Stephen. 2010. "When the ‘Best Hope’ Is Not So Hopeful, What Then?: Democratic Thinking, Democratic Pedagogies, and Higher Education." The Journal of Speculative Philosophy 24 (4): 399–415.
Bloch-Shulman, Stephen, Elizabeth Minnich, Ed Whitfield, Desirae Simmons, Wesley Morris, Michele Leaman, Spoma Jovanovic, Kathleen Edwards, and Maggie Castor. 2012. "Teaching Democratic Thinking." Presentation at Association of American Colleges and Universities Annual Meeting, Washington, DC 2012.
Bloch-Shulman, Stephen, Maggie Castor, and Jessie L. Moore. 2011. "Exploring Radical Research." Presentation at International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Milwaukee, WI 2011.
Bringle, Robert, Patti Clayton, and Kathryn E. Bringle. 2015. "From Teaching Democratic Thinking to Developing Democratic Civic Identity." Partnerships: A Journal of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement 6 (1): 51-76.
Jovanovic, Spoma, Mark Congdon Jr, Crawford Miller, and Garrett Richardson. 2015. "Rooting the Study of Communication Activism in an Attempted Book Ban." Partnerships: A Journal of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement 6 (1): 115-135.
Moore, Jessie L. 2013. "Preparing Advocates: Service-Learning in TESOL for Future Mainstream Educators." TESOL Journal 4 (3). https://doi.org/10.1002/tesj.97.
Price, Christopher, Yael Harlap, Lorriane Gutierrez, and Elizabeth Meier. 2012. "The scholarship of teaching democratic thinking and facilitating diversity learning." Presentation at International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Hamilton, Ontario 2012.
Barefoot, Betsy O. 2000. "The First-Year Experience: Are We Making It Any Better?" About Campus 4 (6): 12-18.
Barefoot writes that high-quality FYE have small class size to increase student-to-faculty interactions; integration of curricular and co-curricular experiences; increased investment of time on campus; and high academic expectations. Barefoot emphasizes that these are the areas that FYE should be focused on in order to obtain the desired outcomes in first-year students. These outcomes are most commonly student retention after the first year and higher grade point averages. The best practices that Barefoot identifies for FYE are similar to the characteristics of HIPs identified by Kuh, O’Donnell, and Schneider in 2017.
Berdrow, Iris, Rebecca Cruise, Ekaterina Levintova, Sabine Smith, Laura Boudon, Dan Paracka, and Paul M. Worley. 2020. "Exploring Patterns of Student Global Learning Choices: A Multi-Institutional Study." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
A combination of institutional and individual factors matter in making choices to pursue study away. A holistic approach to global learning including both classroom and co-curricular opportunities is superior to efforts only to increase study abroad numbers. These holistic approaches can benefit both students who do study abroad and those who do not.
Deardorff, Darla K., and Dawn Michele Whitehead. 2020. "Expanding the Perceptions and Realities of Global Learning: Connecting Disciplines Through Integrative Global Learning and Assessment." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
This chapter provides a broad perspective on assessing global learning. Whitehead and Deardorff suggest having input on assessment from a variety of sources including students, educators, administrators, and staff and designing holistic models of assessment that extend beyond the learner’s college or university years.
Drake Gobbo, Linda, and Joseph G. Hoff. 2020. "Approaching Internationalization as an Ecosystem." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
A Global Learning Ecosystem comprises administrative, curricular, and co-curricular efforts within a college or university. Internationalization, including enrolling international students who join in creating global learning for themselves and for students who do not leave campus, is a useful way of considering global learning. Faculty and staff development and attention to programming across the ecosystem can enhance global learning both on and off campus.
Holgate, Horane, Heidi E. Parker, and Charles A. Calahan. 2020. "Assessing Global Competency Development in Diverse Learning Environments." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
This chapter presents three short scales assessing civic engagement, intercultural knowledge and intercultural competence, all based on AAC&U VALUE rubrics. These scales, which are free to access and use, are suitable for assessing a variety of global learning contexts.
Layne, Prudence, Sarah Glasco, Joan Gillespie, Dana Gross, and Lisa Jasinski. 2020. "#FacultyMatter: Faculty Support and Interventions Integrated into Global Learning." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
Like their students, faculty are also global learners. As such, scholars need to investigate the impact of teaching in disorienting settings on faculty and that colleges and universities need to provide professional development in pedagogy appropriate to these contexts and to facilitate opportunities for faculty to reflect on and process the experiences.
Levintova, Ekaterina, Sabine Smith, Rebecca Cruise, Iris Berdrow, Laura Boudon, Dan Paracka, and Paul M. Worley. 2020. "Have Interest, Will NOT Travel: Unexpected Reasons Why Students Opt Out of International Study." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
Some factors like military experience, family responsibilities, health concerns, and being a student athlete can preclude international study for some students. Universities can help students integrate previous experiences like military deployment or international family travel with other high-impact practices like internships and service-learning. They can also ameliorate some of the scheduling and responsibility concerns for students who do want to travel for study.
Manning, Scott, Zachary Frieders, and Lynette Bikos. 2020. "When Does Global Learning Begin? Recognizing the Value of Student Experiences Prior to Study Away." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
When you ask students to describe valuable experiences in preparing for study away, previous travel and encounters with diversity matter and should be considered when developing pre-departure experiences. Institutions and instructors can use a strengths-based focus to help students to transfer what they have learned from previous domestic and international experiences.
Moore, Jessie L. 2020. "Epilogue: Global Learning as High-Quality Engaged Learning." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, 189-194. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Namaste, Nina, and Amanda Sturgill. 2020. "Introduction." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
Key issues in understanding study away today include: the artificial silos between international and domestic off-campus study and the need to understand study away in the context of the changing world of higher education in general. In particular, study away is no longer the extended time abroad that has been the focus of earlier studies. This volume explores factors related to students, faculty and programs that provide off-campus learning at home and abroad.
Namaste, Nina B. 2017. "Designing and Evaluating Students' Transformative Learning." The Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning 8 (3). http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cjsotl_rcacea/vol8/iss3/5/.
Namaste, Nina, and Amanda Sturgill. 2020. "Opportunities and Challenges of Ethical, Effective Global Learning." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
Quality study away needs to address a set of ethical imperatives including rejecting colonialist models in favor of seeking reciprocity, using high-quality research findings to maximize learning from both domestic and international off-campus experiences, and intentionally integrating both kinds of study away with the larger college and university experience.
Paras, Andrea, and Lynne Mitchell. 2020. "Up for the Challenge? The Role of Disorientation and Dissonance in Intercultural Learning." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
Experiences of cognitive dissonance can help explain shifts in development of intercultural competence. Quality global learning experiences should embrace opportunities to encounter and be made uncomfortable by difference and encourage students to recognize dissonance when it occurs.
Rathburn, Melanie, Jodi Malmgren, Ashley Brenner, Michael Carignan, Jane Hardy, and Andrea Paras. 2020. "Assessing Intercultural Competence in Student Writing: A Multi-Institutional Study." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
When working with short-term, faculty-led programs, written reflective writing and opportunities for working with local communities enhance global learning. Service-learning, which can be done in both international and domestic contexts, causes greater shifts in perspective and enhanced demonstration of ability to adapt behavior and manage emotions in different contexts.
Sturgill, Amanda. 2020. "Crossing Borders at Home: The Promise of Global Learning Close to Campus." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
Learners don’t have to cross geopolitical borders to be global learners, which is good news for students whose degree plans, life factors, or finances preclude international travel. This chapter explores some of the types of global learning possible without even leaving the town, offering results that suggest that quality domestic off-campus study CAN produce change towards intercultural competency.
Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen, Joan Ruelle, and Tim Peeples. 2020. "Mapping Understandings of Global Engagement." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
To define global engagement requires “intentional integration of three critical foundational domains: learning/knowledge, skills/behaviors, and attitudes/dispositions.” Under this definition, global engagement occurs in both international and domestic contexts as students have mentored off- and on-campus experiences.
Vercamer, Bert, Linda Stuart, and Hazar Yildrim. 2020. "Global Competence Development: Blended Learning within a Constructivist Paradigm." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
This chapter examines the use of an online preparatory curriculum for study abroad that mixes informative materials, peer learning, and cultural mentoring. The authors find that this type of curriculum improves both culture-specific and culture-general learning.
Coll, Richard K., R. W. Eames, Levinia K. Paku, Dave Hodges, Ravi Bhat, Shiu Ram, Diana Ayling, Jenny Fleming, Lesley Ferkins, Cindy Wiersma, and Andrew Martin. 2009. "An exploration of the pedagogies employed to integrate knowledge in work-integrated learning." Journal of Cooperative Education & Internships 43 (1): 14-35.
In a national research project analyzing data from employers, students, and practitioners, the study finds a lack of consistent methods and pedagogies for ensuring integration of knowledge in New Zealand’s Work-Integrated Knowledge (WIL)/cooperative education program. Makes specific recommendations for practitioners based on these findings.
Divine, Richard, Robert Miller, J. H. Wilson, and JoAnn Linrud. 2008. "Key philosophical decisions to consider when designing an internship program." Journal of Management and Marketing 12: 1-8.
Discusses important decisions that practitioners must make when designing internship programs. Includes brief discussion of research finding relevant to these decisions. Includes topics such as required vs elective internships, graded vs ungraded experiences, full-time vs part-time experiences, and managed vs unmanaged placement of students.
Eyler, Janet. 2009. "The power of experiential education." Liberal Education: 24-31.
Elucidates the possibilities and challenges of internships and service-learning, emphasizing the unique roles these experiences can play in bidirectional transfer of learning between classroom and the workplace and other higher level intellectual skills and learning outcomes. Summarizes succinctly guidelines for creating high quality programs.
Garraway, James, Terence Volbrecht, Merrill Wicht, and Bhekumusa Ximba. 2011. "Transfer of knowledge between university and work." Teaching in HIgher Education 16 (5): 529-540.
Focuses on internship experiences of students in the sciences, examining student perceptions of transfer of learning in their work along with additional data collected from site supervisors. Identifies various forms of learning transfer described by students and concludes that faculty have a key role in ensuring knowledge transfer in internships. The article also provides an excellent summary of the transfer of knowledge literature.
Hayward, Lorna, Betsey Blackmer, and Joseph Raelin. 2007. "Teaching students a process of reflection: A model for increasing practice-based learning outcomes during cooperative education." Journal of Cooperative Education and Internships 41: 35-47.
Using an experimental design, the study examines the impact of teaching physical therapy students a specific reflection model (i.e., Model of Effective Practice) as a tool for deepening student reflection during a cooperative education experience. Students in the test group demonstrated significant benefits, indicating the importance and value of teaching internship students skills of reflection prior to the experience.
Linn, Patricia I., Adam Howard, and Eric Miller. 2004. Handbook for research in cooperative education and internship. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
A guide for designing and implementing high quality research on internships. Includes examples of studies illustrating a range of methodological approaches, discusses the role of theory in research design, explains program assessment as it relates to research, and considers relevant ethical issues.
Moore, David T. 2013. Engaged learning in the academy: Challenges and possibilities. NY: Palgrave MacMillan.
Provides a comprehensive and well-researched overview of experiential learning in higher education with emphasis on internships and service-learning. An important and foundational reading for practitioners and researchers seeking to understand the issues and controversies in the field as well as current evidence regarding engaged learning’s educational potential. Encourages reflective practice and provides key tools for reflective practitioners and scholars.
Narayanan, V. K., Paul M. Olk, and Cynthia V. Fukami. 2010. "Determinants of internship effectiveness: An exploratory model." Academy of Management Learning & Education 9: 61-80.
Drawing upon knowledge transfer theory, this study examines the roles that students, universities, and businesses play in internship effectiveness in effort to construct a multistage model of determinants of internship effectiveness. Offers recommendations for each of these participant stakeholders geared toward enhancing internship effectiveness and makes suggestions for future research.
O'Neill, Nancy. 2010. "Internships as high impact practice: Some reflections on quality." Peer Review 12 (4): 4-8.
Describes the opportunities and challenges in developing high-impact internships. Offers an excellent discussion of definitional issues in the field and provides suggested guidelines for developing high-impact experiences. Emphasizes the role of institutions in developing high quality experiences.
Schutte, Kelli J. 2007. "Journey or destination: A study of experiential education, reflection, and cognitive development." Journal of Cooperative Education and Internships 41 (1): 118-129.
Using an experimental design, the study examines the role of reflection in the cognitive development of students in internship. Defines “internship” and “reflection” and describes the structure of the internship experience focused on in the study. Concludes that critical reflection is not a natural skill for most students and must be taught and guided by faculty. Implications for practitioners and scholars are discussed.
Simons, Lori, Lawrence Fehr, Nancy Blank, Heather Connell, Denise Georganas, David Fernandex, and Verda Peterson. 2012. "Lessons learned from experiential learning: What do students learn from a practicum/internship?" International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 24 (3): 325-334.
Employs a multi-method approach to identify student learning outcomes in psychology internships. Employs pre-test/post-test surveys and perspectives of students, field supervisors, and faculty. Findings include that students increased in multicultural skills and grew in personal, civic, and career development.
Benjamin, Mimi, ed. 2015. Learning communities from start to finish: New directions for student services, Number 149. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
This edited collection provides theoretical foundations for learning communities and recent research on institutional structures that foster success in implementing, maintaining, and assessing learning communities. Chapters include:
Gabelnick, Faith, Jean MacGregor, Roberta S. Matthews, and Barbara L. Smith, eds. 1990. Learning Communities: Creating Connections Among Students, Faculty, and Disciplines. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, #41. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
In this early comprehensive look at learning communities, the authors draw from the foundational work of Dewey, Meiklejohn, and Tussman and present five basic models of learning communities: linked courses, learning clusters, freshman interest groups, federated learning communities, and coordinated studies. Learning communities are defined as “any one of a variety of curricular structures that link together several existing courses, or restructure the curricular material entirely, so that students have opportunities for deeper understanding and integration of the material they are learning, and more interaction with one another and their teachers as fellow participants in the learning process.” They assert that students should experience a learning community at least once and early in their college career, and that membership in at least one such supportive community may be enough to ensure a student’s persistence. They offer a practical checklist for issues of implementation and sustainability, and address strategies and difficulties related to teaching in learning communities through collaborative design and planning. Two chapters of the book address student and faculty experiences and responses to learning communities, and the final chapter looks ahead to the future of learning communities and curricular reform. There is also a section of resources provided.
Kuh, George D. 1996. "Guiding Principles for Creating Learning Environments for Undergraduates." Journal of College Student Development 37 (2): 135-148.
The author presents six principles “to guide institutional efforts to enhance student learning and personal development by more purposefully integrating curricular goals and outcomes with students’ experiences outside the classroom.” Based on existing research, the author shares ten conditions that foster student learning and personal development that when implemented together represent an institution with a seamless learning environment, that is, an environment that takes once separate parts of the academic experience (e.g., in-class and out-of-class, academic and non-academic, curricular and co-curricular, on- and off-campus experiences) and blends them into a whole and continuous experience. The six principles reflect the broad scope of activities that must be implemented to move toward an ethos of learning: generate enthusiasm for institutional renewal; create a common vision for learning; develop a common language; foster collaboration and cross-functional dialogue; examine the influence of student cultures on student learning; and focus on systemic change. Some institutions may require additional interventions not described in the six principles. The principles are also not presented as a “hierarchy of activities” – an institution may begin with any one of the activities to move toward an ethos of learning, though all must be addressed.
Lenning, Oscar T., Denise M. Hill, Kevin P. Saunders, Alisha Solan, and Andria Stokes. 2013. Powerful Learning Communities: A Guide to Developing Student, Faculty and Professional Learning Communities to Improve Student Success and Organizational Effectiveness. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
A current, comprehensive and highly practical guidebook for the planning and implementation of learning communities, this book moves through the entire process of creating learning communities from introducing concepts and key terms, to defining the scope and types of learning communities, to preparing for and planning, all the way through to assessing outcomes and preventing potential problems. The authors also offer chapters on creating optimal face-to-face, virtual, and hybrid learning communities; conceptual frameworks; achieving optimal student success using the various types of learning communities; and legal and ethical considerations. There are also extensive appendices that provide further information and tools for institutions. Each chapter begins with a “What’s the Story?” feature that highlights a real-life scenario that gives context to the chapter’s content, with a corresponding “The Rest of the Story” section that offers a recap of the scenario and possible actions and solutions. A 90-page PDF companion resource is also available online.
Schroeder, Charles C., and Phyllis Mable, eds. 1994. Realizing the Educational Potential of Residence Halls. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
The integration of the residence hall environment into the college experience is the focus of this book by Charles Schroeder, Phyllis Mable and other well-respected student development scholars. The authors emphasize the integration of “students’ formal academic experiences with their informal out-of-class experiences through collaborative efforts between educators in academic affairs and student affairs.” The book is organized into three sections that focus on different aspects of the residence hall as a learning environment. Part 1 explores the role of residence halls in educating students, which includes a historical overview, review of relevant research, six elements of the successful implementation of residential programs, methods for linking residence halls to curricular practices, and the need for intentional design. Part 2 looks at how to promote learning in the residence halls through the creation of learner-centered environments, the integration of curricular goals, the maximization of peer influences, and the promotion of diversity and civic leadership. Part 3, entitled Strengthening the Educational Impacts of Residence Life, looks at assessment of the residential experience, extracts five themes from the book, and makes fifteen recommendations for implementing a residence hall curriculum.
Shapiro, Nancy S., and Jodi H. Levine. 1999. Creating Learning Communities: A Practical Guide to Winning Support, Organizing for Change, and Implementing Programs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Shapiro and Levine present a comprehensive handbook for the implementation of learning communities on college campuses. In the first two chapters they define and describe the characteristics of learning communities, highlight historical influences and contemporary settings, and describe current models and approaches to learning communities. The next three chapters articulate the types of transformative changes that need to occur for learning communities to take root and flourish in higher education environments, which includes practical advice on human and fiscal resources, curricular implications, and the importance of changing faculty roles and reward structures. Chapters six and seven deal in the practical aspects of administrative partnerships and logistics – planning, registration, marketing, and community building. Following that are two chapters devoted to evaluation and assessment, with the final chapter offering helpful lessons and advice.
Zhao, Chun-Mei, and George D. Kuh. 2004. "Adding Value: Learning Communities and Student Engagement." Research in Higher Education 45 (2): 115-138.
This study was conducted in order to determine whether student success can be linked to participation in a learning community, success being defined as student engagement in educationally purposeful activities, self-reported gains in a variety of outcomes, and overall satisfaction with the college experience. For the purposes of the study, a learning community was defined as a formal program where groups of students take two or more classes together, that may or may not have a residential component. The study used the National Survey for Student Engagement (NSSE), an annual survey of first-year and senior students, that measures the degree to which students participate in educational practices linked to the desired outcomes of college. The survey sample was 80,479 randomly selected first-year and senior students from 365 4-year colleges and universities who completed the survey in the spring of 2002. The results support the assertion that participating in learning communities is “uniformly and positively linked with student academic performance, engagement in educationally fruitful activities, gains associated with college attendance, and overall satisfaction with the college experience.” The article goes on to describe these effects in detail.
Limitations of the study include the wording of the question (it is impossible to determine if students had already participated in a learning community or if they were planning to do so); inability to distinguish between the different types of learning communities in which students had participated; the reliability of some of the scales employed in the study; and the measures are based on self-reported data. The study does, however, provide evidence that learning communities do warrant classification as a high-impact educational practice, and based on this the authors recommend two actions: 1) every campus should evaluate how many and what kinds of learning communities exist on campus and the numbers of different groups of students who are participating in them; 2) efforts should be focused on creating additional learning communities and attracting underrepresented students to participate them, such as male students, transfer students, and part-time students as these are the groups least likely to participate in learning communities before graduation.
Amin, S., Andrea Hunt, Michael Neal, Ruth Palmer, Christin Scholz, and Brad Wuetherick. 2014. "Mentoring of undergraduate research and identity development." Presentation at Pre-ISSOTL CUR Symposium, Quebec City, Canada, October 22, 2014.
Baker, Vicki L., Jane Greer, Laura G. Lunsford, Dijana Ihas, and Meghan J. Pifer. 2018. "Supporting Faculty Development for Mentoring in Undergraduate Research, Scholarship, and Creative Work." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, 131-153. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Baker, Vicki L., Meghan J. Pifer, Laura G. Lunsford, Jane Greer, and Dijana Ihas. 2015. "Faculty as mentors in undergraduate research, scholarship, and creative work: Motivating and inhibiting factors. ." Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning. http://10.1080/13611267.2015.1126164.
Davis, Shannon N., Duhita Mahatmya, Pamela W. Garner, and Rebecca M. Jones. 2015. "Mentoring undergraduate scholars: A pathway to interdisciplinary research?" Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning DOI: 10.1080/13611267.2015.1126166.
Garnder, Pamela W., Duhita Mahatmya, Rebecca M. Jones, and Shannon N. Davis. 2018. "Undergraduate Research Mentoring Relationships: A Mechanism for Developing Social Capital for Underrepresented Students." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, 77-103. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Hill, Jennifer, and Helen Walkington. 2016. "Developing Graduate Attributes through Participation in Undergraduate Research Conferences." Journal of Geography in Higher Education 40 (2): 222-237. https://doi.org/10.1080/03098265.2016.1140128.
This article examines students’ experiences at a national undergraduate research conference in an effort to understand the development of graduate attributes, which are the framework of skills, attitudes, values and knowledge that graduates ought to have developed by the end of their degrees. The research takes a largely qualitative approach, using semi-structured interviews to collect data. The authors explain that research on graduate attributes is relevant because there is a growing, international conversation about the purpose and characteristics of higher education, and that it is becoming ever more important for institutions to justify their social roles to students. This article focuses on a case study of 22 Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) graduates, and forms part of a larger study on interdisciplinary graduate attributes. Additionally, the authors split the attributes they analyzed into five categories: communication; research and inquiry skills; personal and intellectual autonomy; ethical, social, and professional understanding; and information literacy. Notably, the authors found that the conference provided a safe and supportive, while also challenging, context for students to develop these skills. This research highlights the importance of opportunities to develop such skills outside of formal disciplinary curricula.
Hill, Jennifer, Helen Walkington, and Derek France. 2016. "Graduate attributes: implications for higher education practice and policy." Journal of Geography in Higher Education 40 (2): 155-163. https://doi.org/10.1080/03098265.2016.1154932.
This article offers an overview of existing higher education literature on and attitudes towards the development of graduate attributes, while introducing the papers which comprised a symposium on this research context. One issue the authors discuss is the extent of the connection between what academic staff set up for students in terms of skill development and how much students actually experience. The authors also note the importance of students accepting agency in the process of developing their own graduate attributes, rather than letting the system determine their identities. In their conclusion, the authors emphasize that regardless of inconsistencies in teaching and assessing graduate attributes, they play a valuable role in enhancing learning and connecting learning to work beyond students’ academic careers.
Johnson, W. Brad. 2018. "Foreword." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, ix-xii. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Johnson, Brad W., Laura L. Behling, Paul C. Miller, and Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler. 2015. "Undergraduate research mentoring: Obstacles and opportunities." Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning DOI: 10.1080/13611267.2015.1126167.
Ketcham, Caroline J., Eric E. Hall, Heather M. Fitz Gibbon, and Helen Walkington. 2018. "Co-Mentoring in Undergraduate Research: A Faculty Development Perspective." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, 155-179. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Ketcham, Caroline J., Eric E. Hall, and Paul C. Miller. 2017. "Co-Mentoring Undergraduate Research: Student, Faculty and Institutional Perspectives." Perspectives on Undergraduate Research and Mentoring 6 (1). http://blogs.elon.edu/purm/files/2017/10/final_Ketcham-Hall-Miller_main.pdf.
This article outlines the benefits and challenges of co-mentoring for students, faculty mentors, and institutions. The authors themselves have several years of experience co-mentoring undergraduate research projects, and offer insights they have gained through those projects. The authors present the co-mentoring model they have developed and a practical guide to co-mentoring, incorporating salient practices of mentoring undergraduate research. In their conclusion, the authors note that a lot of work needs to happen to foster co-mentoring relationships, but if that happens, they can be extremely beneficial to all involved parties.
Kneale, Pauline, Andrew Edwards-Jones, Helen Walkington, and Jennifer Hill. 2016. "Evaluating undergraduate research conferences as vehicles for novice researcher development." International Journal for Researcher Development 7 (2): 159-177. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJRD-10-2015-0026.
This paper assesses the significance of participation in undergraduate research conferences on students’ attitudes and professional development, including the development of graduate attributes. The paper positions the undergraduate research conference as an authentic learning context using the theory of situated learning. The authors interviewed 90 undergraduate students at research conferences, and analyzed their responses using the Researcher Development Framework. Students reported that paper presentations, poster presentations, and the overall conference experience were particularly valuable to their skill development. Two of these skills were public engagement and communication, which the authors note are routinely sought after by employers. The authors also offered some suggestions to conference organizers in order to maximize skill development, including providing dedicated networking time within the program.
Lunsford, Laura, Meghan Pifer, Vicki Baker, Jane Greer, and Dijana Ihas. 2015. "Who are Faculty Mentors of Undergraduate Research, Scholarly, or Creative Works?" Presentation at Annual meeting of the International Mentoring Association, Phoenix, AZ, April 2015.
Moore, Jessie L. 2018. "Afterword." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, 215-219. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Nicholson, Brittany A., Meagan Pollock, Caroline J. Ketcham, Heather M. Fitz Gibbon, Evan D. Bradley, and Michelle Bata. 2017. "Beyond the Mentor-Mentee Model: A Case for Multi-Mentoring in Undergraduate Research." Perspectives on Undergraduate Research and Mentoring 6 (1). http://blogs.elon.edu/purm/files/2017/10/Nicholson_et_al_6.1.pdf.
In this paper, the authors argue that multi-mentoring can be applied in a global, interdisciplinary context to undergraduate research, and make the case for moving beyond the traditional one-to-one model as the default for inquiry into undergraduate research practices. The paper includes descriptions of relevant multi-mentoring and co-mentoring models, and offers suggestions for implementing multi- and co-mentoring practices to advance the undergraduate experience. In their conclusion, the authors note that institutions will need to assist faculty mentors in overcoming some of the challenges that accompany starting out with multi-mentoring.
Palmer, Ruth J, Andrea N Hunt, Michael R Neal, and Brad Wuetherick. 2018. "Mentored Undergraduate Research: An Investigation into Students' Perceptions of Its Impact on Identity Development." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, 19-42. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Palmer, Ruth J., Andrea N. Hunt, Michael Neal, and Brad Wuetherick. 2015. "Mentoring, undergraduate research, and identity development: A conceptual review and research agenda." Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning DOI: 10.1080/13611267.2015.1126165.
Partridge, Lee, Kathy Takayama, Candace Rypisi, and Cassandra Horii. 2014. "Preparing future faculty for undergraduate research mentoring: A multi-institutional study." Presentation at Pre-ISSOTL CUR Symposium, Quebec City, Canada, October 22, 2014.
Shanahan, Jenny Olin. 2018. "Mentoring Strategies that Support Underrepresented Students in Undergraduate Research." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, 43-75. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Shanahan, Jenny Olin, Helen Walkington, Elizabeth Ackley, Eric E. Hall, and Kearsley A. Stewart. 2017. "Award-Winning Mentors See Democratization as the Future of Undergraduate Research." CUR Quarterly 37 (4): 4-11. https://doi.org/10.18833/curq/37/4/14.
In this article, the authors set out to identify likely future trends for undergraduate research (UR) in the next five to ten years. This research is important for the field because it can help faculty and administrators consider how they plan to allocate resources to ensure equitable and high-quality UR mentoring in the future. The authors conducted a literature review and interviews with faculty who have won awards for their commitment to and expertise of UR. Their two main findings are as follows. First, UR will likely see greater democratization in terms of greater access to opportunities for students from historically-underserved groups, students from nontraditional populations, and students with average academic performance histories. And second, mentor-mentee relationships are expected to strengthen across national and international borders as online communication capacities continue to advance. Curricula redesigns that incorporate inquiry-based learning may also facilitate greater participation in UR.
Shanahan, Jenny O., Elizabeth Ackley-Holbrook, Eric Hall, Kearsley Stewart, and Helen Walkington. 2015. "Ten salient practices of undergraduate research mentors: A review of the literature." Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning DOI: 10.1080/13611267.2015.1126162.
Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen, Paul C. Miller, and Jessie L. Moore. 2018. "Introduction: Considering Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research in Context." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, 1-18. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen, Paul C. Miller, and Jessie L. Moore. 2018. Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
This edited collection features multi-institutional and international research from the 2014-2016 Center for Engaged Learning research seminar on Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research.
Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen, Pault C. Miller, and Tim Peeples. 2015. "'Mentoring is sharing the excitement of discovery': Faculty perceptions of undergraduate research mentoring." Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning DOI: 10.1080/13611267.2015.1126163.
Walkington, Helen, Eric E. Hall, Jenny Olin Shanahan, Elizabeth Ackley, and Kearsley Stewart. 2018. "Striving for Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research: The Challenges and Approaches to Salient Practices." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, 105-129. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Walkington, Helen, Jennifer Hill, and Pauline E. Kneale. 2016. "Reciprocal elucidation: a student-led pedagogy in multidisciplinary undergraduate research conferences." Higher Education Research and Development 36 (2): 416-429. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2016.1208155.
This article investigates the benefits of attending a multidisciplinary research conference as an undergraduate researcher, focusing on student voices and self-perceptions of learning and skill development. The authors conducted 90 interviews with student conference participants over the course of three years, and found that the opportunity to present research in a setting outside of institutional or disciplinary contexts bolstered student researchers’ development of skills and confidence. The authors frame the undergraduate research conference as a threshold experience for self-authorship development, and thus such conferences are much more than just a space to present research findings. They also found that students who presented at conferences often reported a sense of unfinishedness, which challenges academics to consider ways to bring comparable experiences into the classroom, to provide space for students to develop knowledge through reciprocal dialogue.
Walkington, Helen. 2015. Students as researchers: Supporting undergraduate research in the disciplines in higher education. York, UK: Higher Education Academy.
Wuetherick, Brad, John Willison, and Jenny Olin Shanahan. 2018. "Mentored Undergraduate Research at Scale: Undergraduate Research in the Curriculum and as Pedagogy." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, 181-202. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Bharath, Del. 2020. "Using eService-learning to practice technical writing skills for emerging nonprofit professionals." Journal of Nonprofit Education and Leadership 10 (1): 62-81. https://doi.org/10.18666/JNEL-2020-V10-I1-9420.
Bharath uses an e-service learning project as an educational tool that helps students develop technical writing skills and meet their partner organization’s needs in an online nonprofit course. Furthermore, this paper provides a discussion on the benefits and challenges facing e-service learning projects.
Bourelle, Tiffany. 2014. "Adapting service-learning into the online technical communication classroom: A framework and model." Technical Communication Quarterly 23 (4): 247-264. https://doi.org/10.1080/10572252.2014.941782.
Bourelle implements an e-service learning project in a distance communication course. The researcher specifically examined students’ sense of civic responsibility, application of skills, peer learning, and their use of technology.
Branker, Kadra, Jacqueline Corbett, Jane Webster, and Joshua M. Pearce. 2010. "Hybrid Virtual- and Field Work-Based Service Learning with Green Information Technology and Systems Projects." Informational Journal for Service Learning in Engineering 5 (2): 44-59. https://doi.org/10.24908/ijsle.v5i2.3166.
In this study, the authors take a hybrid-approach to create a service-learning project with Engineering students. Using a two-prong approach, the authors had students completed the first half of the project virtually and second half in the field. Additionally, the authors reflected on the use of virtual versus traditional methods of service-learning.
Dailey-Hebert, Ashley, Emily Donnelli-Sallee, and Laurie N. DiPadvoa-Stocks, eds. 2008. Service-eLearning: Educating for Citizenship. Information Age Publishing, Inc..
Grounded in the theory-to-practice of service-learning, this edited book proposes a new model that blends existing service-learning methods with eLearning pedagogy. The book also recognizes how emerging technology can shape how students participate in eService-learning projects.
Dailey-Herber, Amber, and Emily Donnelli. 2010. "Service-eLearning: Educating Today’s Learners for an Unscripted Future." International Journal of Organizational Analysis 18 (2): 216-227. https://doi.org/10.1108/19348831011046272.
This paper examines how educators can use eLearning pedagogies in service-learning courses through theoretical frameworks and practical considerations. Though authors intended to use their findings to help create innovative pedagogical approaches to respond to emerging technology and educational preferences of Millennials, the results can be adapted to fit Gen-Z students as well.
García-Gutierrez, Juan, Marta Ruiz-Corbella, and Araceli del Pozo Armentia. 2017. " Developing Civic Engagement in Distance Higher Education: A Case Study of Virtual Service-Learning (vSL) Programme in Spain." Open Praxis 9 (2): 235-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.9.2.578.
Using the university’s competence framework and the service-learning methodology, the authors propose a virtual service-learning project between students from the Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (Spain) and the University of Porto-Novo (Benin).
Guthrie, Kathy L., and Holly McCracken. 2010. "Making a Difference Online: Facilitating Service-Learning through Distance Education." Internet and Higher Education 13: 153-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2010.02.006.
Through this case study, Guthrie and McCraken examine how service-learning pedagogies can be used in an online format. The authors explore how to create a virtual learning environment as well as the associated benefits and challenges.
Harris, Usha S. 2017. "Virtual Partnerships: Engaging Students in E-service Learning Using Computer-mediated Communication." Asia Pacific Media Educator 27 (1): 103-117. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1326365X17701792.
The author examined how Australian students engaged in mediated intercultural dialogue through an e-service learning project with a non-government organization in India. Additionally, the author analyzed the online tools students utilize and their online communication processes and habits during this project.
McWhorter, Rochell R., Julia A. Delello, and Paul B. Roberts. 2016. "Giving Back: Exploring Service-Learning in an Online Learning Environment." Journal of Interactive Online Learning 14 (2): 80-99.
McWhorter, Delello, and Roberts examined how service-learning opportunities could be embedded in an online graduate business course. The study sought to understand the academics benefits of having a service-learning an online course and how did students apply their coursework to their service-learning experience.
Purcell, Jennifer W. 2017. "Community‐Engaged Pedagogy in the Virtual Classroom: Integrating eService‐Learning Into Online Leadership Education." Journal of Leadership Studies 11 (1): 65-70. https://doi.org/10.1002/jls.21515.
Using theoretical and practical consideration, Purcell examines how community-engaged pedagogies, such as service-learning, can be used by leadership educators in creating an online community-engaged course.
Sandy, Marie G., and Zeno E. Franco. 2014. "Grounding Service-Learning in the Digital Age: Exploring a Virtual Sense of Geographic Place Through Online Collaborative Mapping and Mixed Media." Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement 18 (4): 201-227. https://openjournals.libs.uga.edu/jheoe/article/view/1158.
In this case study, the authors explore using collaborative mapping to help students create a virtual sense of place in their service e-learning experience.
Soria, Krista M., and Brad Weiner. 2013. "A “Virtual Fieldtrip”: Service Learning in Distance Education Technical Writing Courses." Journal of Technical Writing and Communication 43 (2): 181-200. https://doi.org/10.2190%2FTW.43.2.e.
The authors performed a mixed-methods experimental study to see how incorporating a virtual service-learning experience can affect student learning outcomes in a distance technical writing course. The purpose of the study was to determine how service-learning could enhance student learning outcomes in a distance course and to understand how virtual learning can be deepened through community engagement.
Waldner, Leora, Sue McGorry, and Murray Widener. 2010. "Extreme E-Service Learning (XE-SL): E-Service Learning in the 100% Online Course." MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching 64 (4): 839-851. https://jolt.merlot.org/vol6no4/waldner_1210.pdf.
In this study, the authors explore the concept of extreme e-service learning, where instruction and service projects are entirely online. Additionally, the authors examine the benefits, challenges, and best practices of implementing an extreme e-service learning experience.
Waldner, Leora S., Murray C. McGorry, and Sue Y. Widener. 2012. "E-Service Learning: The Evolution of Service-Learning to Engage a Growing Online Student Population." Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement 16 (2): 123-150. https://openjournals.libs.uga.edu/jheoe/article/view/936.
In this literature review, the authors examined the evolution and expansion of e-service learning. From this review, they have identified four types of e-service learning—Hybrid: Instruction Online with Service on Site, Hybrid: Instruction on Site with Service Online, Hybrid: Instruction and/or Service Partially on Site and Partially Online, and Extreme: Instruction and Service 100% Online—and best practices in conducting these endeavors.
Yusof, Azizah, Noor Azean Atan, Jamalludin Harun, and Mehran Doulatabadi. 2019. "Developing Students Graduate Attributes in Service Learning Project through Online Platform." Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management: 3524-3537. http://ieomsociety.org/ieom2019/papers/815.pdf.
Though this study provides a mixture of face-to-face and online instruction to create a hybrid service-learning experience for Engineering undergraduate students in Malaysia, the authors explore how virtual tools such as online discussions and online meetings can have a positive impact on the student’s learning and engagement.
Adler-Kassner, Linda, and Elizabeth Wardle, eds. 2015. Naming what we know: Threshold concepts of writing studies. Boulder, CO: Utah State UP.
Contributors define thirty-seven threshold concepts in the discipline of writing studies and examine the application of threshold concepts in specific sites of writing.
Adler-Kassner, Linda. 2014. "Liberal Learning, Professional Training, and Disciplinarity in the Age of Educational ‘Reform': Remodeling General Education." College English 76.5: 436-457.
Adler-Kassner, Linda, John Majewski, and Damian Koshnick. 2012. "The Value of Troublesome Knowledge: Transfer and Threshold Concepts in Writing and History." Composition Forum 26. http://compositionforum.com/issue/26/troublesome-knowledge-threshold.php.
Adler-Kassner, Linda, and John Majewski. 2012. "Current Contexts: Students, Their Instructors, and Threshold Concepts." Presentation at Conference on College Composition and Communication, St. Louis, MO 2012.
Adler-Kassner, Linda. 2017. "Transfer and educational reform in the twenty-first century: College and career readiness and the Common Core Standards." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 15-26. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Anson, Chris A., and Jessie L. Moore, eds. 2016/2017. Critical Transitions: Writing and the Question of Transfer. Fort Collins, CO: The WAC Clearinghouse and University Press of Colorado.
Anson, Chris. 2012. "Current Research on Writing Transfer." Presentation at National Council of Teachers of English Conference, Las Vegas, NV 2012.
Anson, Chris M. 2016. "The Pop Warner Chronicles: A Case Study in Contextual Adaptation and the Transfer of Writing Ability." College Composition and Communication 67 (4): 518-549.
Barnett, Brooke, Woody Pelton, Francois Masuka, Kevin Morrison, and Jessie L. Moore. 2017. "Diversity, global citizenship, and writing transfer." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 59-68. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Bass, Randall. 2017. "Coda: Writing transfer and the future of the integrated university." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 144-154. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Blythe, Stuart. 2012. "Prompting Student Reflection Through Audio-video Journals." Presentation at Conference on College Composition and Communication, Computer Connect Session, St. Louis, MO, March 2012.
Boone, Stephanie, Sara Biggs Chaney, Josh Compton, Cristiane Donahue, and Karen Gocsik. 2012. "Imagining a Writing and Rhetoric Program Based on Principles of Knowledge ‘Transfer': Dartmouth’s Institute for Writing and Rhetoric." Composition Forum 26. http://compositionforum.com/issue/26/dartmouth.php.
Boyd, Diane E. 2014. "Bottleneck Behaviours and Student Identities: Helping Novice Writers Develop in the First Year Seminar and Beyond." Presentation at Threshold Concepts in Practice, Durham, UK 2014.
Boyd, Diane E. 2017. "Student drafting behaviors in and beyond the first-year seminar." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 103-112. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Chiu, Scott C., Stacey Cozart, Ketevan Kupatadze, and Tine Wirenfeldt Jensen. 2014. "Opportunities and Challenges of Writing in a Second Language." Presentation at Writing Reseach Across Borders III, Paris, FR 2014.
Clark, Irene. 2014. "Fostering Transfer Across Writing Contexts: Genre Awareness as a Threshold Concept." Presentation at 12th International Writing Across the Curriculum Conference, Minneapolis, MN, July 12, 2014.
Clark, Irene. 2012. "Students’ Awareness of Genre and Rhetoric." Presentation at National Council of Teachers of English Conference, Las Vegas, NV, November 16, 2012.
Clark, Irene. 2012. "Academic Writing and Transferability: Print and New Media." Presentation at Council of Writing Program Administrators Conference, Albuquerque, NM, July 2012.
Clark, Irene. 2012. "Rhetorical Knowledge and Genre Awareness as Gateway to Transfer." Presentation at Conference on College Composition and Communication, St. Louis, MO, March 2012.
Clark, Irene, and Andrea Hernandez. 2011. "Genre Awareness, Academic Argument, and Transferability." The WAC Journal 22: 65-78. https://wac.colostate.edu/journal/vol22/clark.pdf.
DasBender, Gita. 2012. "Reflective Writing and Knowledge Transfer of Multilingual Students." Presentation at New Jersey College English Association (NJCEA) Conference, South Orange, NJ, April 14, 2012.
DasBender, Gita. 2012. "Explicit Teaching, Mindful Learning: Writing Knowledge and Skills Transfer of Multilingual Students in First-Year Writing." Presentation at Conference on College Composition and Communication, St. Louis, MO, March 24, 2012.
Donahue, Christiane. 2014. "WAC, International Research, and ‘Transfer': Waves of Troublesome Knowledge." Presentation at 12th International Writing Across the Curriculum Conference, Minneapolis, MN, June 12, 2014.
Driscoll, Dana L. 2014. "Clashing Values: A Longitudinal, Exploratory Study of Student Beliefs about General Education, Vocationalism, and Transfer of Learning." Teaching & Learning Inquiry 2 (1): 21-37. http://tlijournal.com/tli/index.php/TLI/article/view/67/66.
Driscoll, Dana, Ed Jones, Carol Hayes, and Gwen Gorzelsky. 2013. "Promoting Transfer through Reflection: A Cross-Institutional Study of Metacognition, Identity, and Rhetoric." Presentation at Conference on College Composition and Communication, Las Vegas, NV, March 16, 2013.
Driscoll, Dana L., and Jennifer H. M. Wells. 2012. "Beyond Knowledge and Skills: Writing Transfer and the Role of Student Dispositions in and beyond the Writing Classroom." Composition Forum 26. http://compositionforum.com/issue/26/beyond-knowledge-skills.php.
Farrell, Alison, and Sharon Tighe-Mooney. 2015. "Recall, Recognise, Re-Invent: The Value of Facilitating Writing Transfer in the Writing Centre Setting." Journal of Academic Writing 5 (2): 29-42.
Farrell, Alison, Sandra Kane, Steven P. Salchak, and Cecilia M. Dube. 2015. "Empowered empathetic encounters: Building international collaborations through researching writing in the context of South African higher education and beyond." South African Journal of Higher Education 29 (4): 96-113.
Farrell, Alison, Sandra Kane, Cecilia Dube, and Steve Salchak. 2017. "Rethinking the role of higher education in college preparedness and success from the perspective of writing transfer." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 81-92. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Felten, Peter. 2017. "Writing high-impact practices: Developing proactive knowledge in complex contexts." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 49-58. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Goldschmidt, Mary. 2014. "Teaching Writing in the Disciplines: Student Perspectives on Learning Genre." Teaching & Learning Inquiry 2 (2): 25-40. http://tlijournal.com/tli/index.php/TLI/article/view/66/37.
Goldschmidt, Mary. 2017. "Promoting cross-disciplinary transfer: A case study in genre learning." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 122-130. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Gorzelsky, Gwen, Carol Hayes, Ed Jones, and Dana Lynn Driscoll. 2017. "Cueing and adapting first-year writing knowledge: Support for transfer into disciplinary writing." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 113-121. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Hillard, Van E. 2012. "Intellectual Ethos as Transcendent Disposition." Presentation at South Atlantic Modern Language Association, Durham, NC, November 11, 2012.
Kane, Sandra, and Cecilia Dube. 2012. "Perspectives from a South African University on Students’ Writing Apprehension, Attitudes to Writing and Performance." Presentation at International Writing Across the Curriculum Conference, Savannah, GA, June 9, 2012.
Kupatadze, Ketevan. 2012. "The Role of Students’ Attitudes Towards Foreign Language Writing and the Problems and Opportunities of Transfer." Presentation at South Atlantic Modern Language Association, Durham, NC, November 11, 2012.
Kupatadze, Ketevan, and Scott Chien-Hsiung Chiu. 2014. "Supporting Second/Foreign Language Writing in Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Academic Environments." Presentation at 12th International Writing Across the Curriculum Conference, Minneapolis, MN, June 14, 2014.
Lomicka, Lara, and Jennifer Eidum. 2019. "Pathways to Thriving." Talking Stick November + December. http://read.nxtbook.com/acuhoi/talking_stick/november_december_2019/pathways_to_thriving.html.
Moore, Jessie L., and Randall Bass, eds. 2017. Understanding Writing Transfer: Implications for Transformative Student Learning in Higher Education. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.
Moore, Jessie L. 2014. "The Elon Statement on Writing Transfer and its Implications for WAC." Presentation at 12th International Writing Across the Curriculum Conference, Minneapolis, MN, June 13, 2014.
Moore, Jessie L. 2012. "Mapping the Questions: The State of Writing-Related Transfer Research." Composition Forum 26. http://compositionforum.com/issue/26/map-questions-transfer-research.php.
Moore, Jessie L. 2012. "Connecting Teacher-Scholars: Igniting Multi-Institutional Research through a Research Seminar." Presentation at National Council of Teachers of English Conference, Las Vegas, NV, November 16, 2012.
Moore, Jessie L. 2012. "A 20×20 Introduction to Writing Transfer Research." Presentation at South Atlantic Modern Language Association, Durham, NC, November 11, 2012.
Moore, Jessie L. 2012. "Connecting Localities with Multi-Institutional Research." Presentation at Council of Writing Program Administrators Conference, Albuquerque, NM, July 20, 2012.
Moore, Jessie L. 2017. "Five essential principles about writing transfer." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 1-12. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Moore, Jessie L., and Chris M. Anson. 2016/2017. "Introduction." In Critical transitions: Writing and the question of transfer, edited by Chris M. Anson and Jessie L. Moore, 3-13. Fort Collins, CO: The WAC Clearinghouse and University Press of Colorado.
Qualley, Donna, Justin Ericksen, Leon Erickson, Samuel Johnson, LeAnne Laux-Bachand, Michelle Magnero, and Aimee Odens. 2013. "(Re)Aligning Expectations: Graduate Student Teachers as Agents of Integration." Presentation at Conference on College Composition and Communication, Las Vegas, NV, March 2013.
Robertson, Liane, Kathleen Blake Yancey, and Kara Taczak. 2014. "Shifting Currents in Writing Instruction: Prior Knowledge and Transfer across the Curriculum." Presentation at 12th International Writing Across the Curriculum Conference, Minneapolis, MN, June 14, 2014.
Robertson, Liane, Kara Taczak, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. 2012. "Notes Toward a Theory of Prior Knowledge and its Role in College Composers’ Transfer of Knowledge and Practice." Composition Forum 26. http://compositionforum.com/issue/26/prior-knowledge-transfer.php.
Robertson, Liane. 2012. "Connecting Content and Transfer in Teaching Writing across Contexts." Presentation at South Atlantic Modern Language Association, Durham, NC, November 11, 2012.
Robertson, Liane, and Kara Taczak. 2017. "Teaching for transfer." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 93-102. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Taczak, Kara. 2012. "The Question of Transfer." Composition Forum 26. http://compositionforum.com/issue/26/question-of-transfer.php.
Taczak, Kara. 2012. "The Transfer of Transfer: Moving across Institutional Contexts." Presentation at South Atlantic Modern Language Association, Durham, NC, November 11, 2012.
Wardle ., Elizabeth. 2012. "Creative Repurposing for Expansive Learning: Considering ‘Problem-Exploring’ and ‘Answer-Getting’ Dispositions in Individuals and Fields." Composition Forum 26.
Wardle, Elizabeth, and Nicolette Mercer Clement. 2017. ""The hardest thing with writing is not getting enough instruction": Helping educators guide students through writing challenges." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 131-143. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Wells, Jennifer, Ed Jones, and Dana Driscoll. 2012. "Opening Gateways Across the Curriculum: Writing about Writing and Transfer in High School and College Courses." Presentation at Conference on College Composition and Communication, St. Louis, MO, March 22, 2012.
Werder, Carmen. 2013. "Misaligned Expectations: How They Work as Agents of Disintegration." Presentation at Conference on College Composition and Communication, Las Vegas, NV, March 16, 2013.
Werder, Carmen M. 2017. "Telling expectations about academic writing: If not working, what about knotworking?" In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 69-78. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte, Stacey Cozart, Tine Wirenfeldt Jensen, and Gry Sandholm Jensen. 2013. "Grappling with identity issues: Danish graduate student views on writing in L2 English." Presentation at The English in Europe (EiE) conference on the English language in teaching in European higher education, Copenhagen, DK, April 19-21, 2013.
Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte, Stacey Cozart, Tine Wirenfeldt Jensen, and Gry Sandholm Jensen. 2012. "Writing in English is like being married to somebody you don’t know very well: Postgraduate writing in L2 English." Presentation at The NIC Conference on Intercultural Communication, Aarhus, DK 2012.
Yancey, Kathleen B., Liane Robertson, and Kara Taczak. 2014. Writing across Contexts: Transfer, Composition, and Sites of Writing. Boulder, CO: Utah State UP.
Yancey, Kathleen Blake. 2017. "Writing, transfer, and ePortfolios: A possible trifecta in supporting student learning." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 39-48. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Benjamin, Mimi, Jody Jessup-Anger, Shannon Lundeen, and Cara Lucia. 2020. "Notes for this Special Issue." Learning Communities Research and Practice (LCRP) 8 (1). https://washingtoncenter.evergreen.edu/lcrpjournal/vol8/iss1/1.
Eidum, Jennifer, Lara Lomicka, Ghada Endick, Warren Chiang, and Jill Stratton. 2020. "Thriving in Residential Learning Communities." Learning Communities Research and Practice (LCRP) 8 (7). https://washingtoncenter.evergreen.edu/lcrpjournal/vol8/iss1/7.
Gebauer, Richie, Mary Ellen Wade, Tina Muller, Samantha Kramer, Margaret Leary, and John Sopper. 2020. "Unique Strategies to Foster Integrative Learning in Residential Learning Communities." Learning Communities Research and Practice (LCRP) 8 (9). https://washingtoncenter.evergreen.edu/lcrpjournal/vol8/iss1/9.
Leibowitz, Justin B., Charity Fiene Lovitt, and Craig S. Seager. 2020. "Development and Validation of a Survey to Assess Belonging, Academic Engagement, and Self-Efficacy in STEM RLCs." Learning Communities Research and Practice (LCRP) 8 (3). https://washingtoncenter.evergreen.edu/lcrpjournal/vol8/iss1/3.
Lomicka, Lara, Warren Chiang, Jennifer Eidum, Ghada Endick, and Jill Stratton. 2019. "Thriving in Residential Learning communities: The Role of Faculty Involvement." Poster at Residential Learning Communities as a High-Impact Practice Conference, Elon, NC 2019.
Lomicka, Lara, Warren Chiang, Jennifer Eidum, Ghada Endick, and Jill Stratton. 2019. "Thriving in Residential Learning Communities: An investigation of student characteristics and RLC types." Paper at Residential Learning Communities as a High-Impact Practice Conference, Elon, NC 2019.
Lomicka, Lara, Warren Chiang, Jennifer Eidum, Ghada Endick, and Jill Stratton. 2019. "What Components Contribute to Thriving in Residential Learning Communities?" Paper at First Year Experience Conference, Las Vegas, NV 2019.
Sriram, Rishi, Joseph Cheatle, Christopher P. Marquart, Joseph L. Murray, and Susan D. Weintraub. 2020. "The Development and Validation of an Instrument Measuring Academic, Social, and Deeper Life Interactions." Journal of College Student Development 61 (2): 240-45. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/752979.
Sriram, Rishi, Cliff Haynes, Susan D. Weintraub, Joseph Cheatle, Christopher P. Marquart, and Joseph L. Murray. 2020. "Student Demographics and Experiences of Deeper Life Interactions within Residential Learning Communities." Learning Communities Research and Practice (LCRP) 8 (8). https://washingtoncenter.evergreen.edu/lcrpjournal/vol8/iss1/8.
Ash, Sarah L., and Patti H. Clayton. 2004. "The Articulated Learning: An approach to Guided Reflection and Assessment." Innovative Higher Education 29 (2): 137-154.
Reflection is an integral aspect of service-learning, but it does not simply happen by telling students to reflect. This paper describes the risks involved in poor quality reflection and explains the results of rigorous reflection. A rigorous reflection framework is introduced that involves objectively describing an experience, analyzing the experience, and then articulating learning outcomes according to guiding questions.
Celio, Christine I., Joseph Durlak, and Allison Dymnicki. 2011. "A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Service-Learning on Students." Journal of Experiential Education 34 (2): 164-181.
For those seeking empirical data regarding the value of service-learning, this meta-analysis provides considerable evidence. Representing data from 11,837 students, this meta-analysis of 62 studies identified five areas of gain for students who took service-learning courses as compared to control groups who did not. The students in service-learning courses demonstrated significant gains in their self-esteem and self-efficacy, educational engagement, altruism, cultural proficiency, and academic achievement. Studies of service-learning courses that implemented best practices (e.g., supporting students in connecting curriculum with the service, incorporating the voice of students in the service-learning project, welcoming community involvement in the project, and requiring reflection) had higher effect sizes.
Cress, Christine M., Peter J. Collier, Vicki L. Reitenauer, and Associates, eds. 2013. Learning through Service: A Student Guidebook for Service-Learning and Civic Engagement across Academic Disciplines and Cultural Communities, 2nd ed. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC.
Although written for students to promote an understanding of their community service through reflection and their personal development as citizens who share expertise with compassion, this text is also useful for faculty. Among the many topics addressed, it provides descriptions of service-learning and civic engagement, explains how to establish and deepen community partnerships, and challenges students to navigate difference in ways that unpack privilege and analyze power dynamics that often surface in service-learning and civic engagement. Written in an accessible style, it is good first text for learning about service-learning and civic engagement.
Delano-Oriaran, Omobolade, Marguerite W Penick-Parks, and Suzanne Fondrie, eds. 2015. The SAGE Sourcebook of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
This tome contains 58 chapters on a variety of aspects related to service-learning and civic engagement. The intended audience is faculty in higher education and faculty in P-12 schools, as well as directors of service-learning or civic engagement centers in universities or school districts. The SAGE Sourcebook of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement outlines several theoretical models on the themes of service-learning and civic engagement, provides guides that faculty can employ when developing service-learning projects, shares ideas for program development, and offers numerous resources that faculty can use. Parts I – IV of the sourcebook are directed toward general information about service-learning and civic engagement, including aspects of implementation; parts V – VIII describe programs and issues related to the use of service-learning or civic engagement within disciplines or divisions; part IX addresses international service-learning; and part X discusses sustainability.
Felten, Peter, and Patti H. Clayton. 2011. "Service-Learning." New Directions for Teaching and Learning 128: 75-84. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/tl.470.
Felten and Clayton define service-learning, describe its essential aspects, and review the empirical evidence supporting this pedagogy. Both affective and cognitive aspects of growth are examined in their review. The authors conclude that effectively designed service-learning has considerable potential to promote transformation for all involved, including those who mentor students during the service-learning experience.
Hatcher, Julie A., and Morgan L. Struder. 2015. "Service-learning and philanthropy: Implications for course design." Theory Into Practice 54 (1): 11-19.
Historically, universities have lauded their role in developing citizens who contribute to the public good. Every community needs citizens who are knowledgeable about local issues of inequity and who are willing to work with others to advocate for and help bring about positive social change related to those issues. This article examines the influence of service-learning experiences in fostering philanthropy and civic activity that continues after graduation. Five suggestions are made for tailoring service-learning such that students can eventually become civic-minded graduates.
Jacoby, Barbara. 2015. Service-learning essentials: Questions, answers and lessons learned. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Arranged as a series of questions and answers about service-learning, this text shares research and the author’s personal wisdom gathered over decades of experience in service-learning. Faculty members who are new to service-learning will learn the basics of this pedagogy. Those with experience will discover ways to refine and improve their implementation of service-learning. All aspects of service-learning are clearly explained in this accessible text, including advise for overcoming obstacles.
Jones, Susan R. 2002. "The Underside of Service-Learning." About Campus 7 (4): 10-15.
Although an older publication, this article is not outdated. Jones describes how some students resist examining assumptions and refuse to see how their beliefs perpetuate negative stereotypes. These students challenge both the faculty member teaching the service-learning course and classmates. Jones discusses the need for faculty to anticipate how to respond to students’ racist or homophobic comments in a way that acknowledges where the students are developmentally, while also honoring the complexity involved. Additionally, the author recommends that faculty examine their own background and level of development relative to issues of privilege and power that can arise in service-learning pedagogy.
McDonald, James, and Lynn Dominguez. 2015. "Developing University and Community Partnerships: A Critical Piece of Successful Service Learning." Journal of College Science Teaching 44 (3): 52-56.
Developing a positive partnership with a community organization is a critical aspect service-learning. McDonald and Dominguez discuss best practice for service-learning and explain a framework for developing a successful partnership in the community. Faculty need to
Two service-learning projects, one for an environmental course and another for an elementary methods science course, are described along with the positive outcomes for students and community partners.
Steinberg, Kathryn S., Julie A. Hatcher, and Robert G. Bringle. 2011. "Civic-minded graduate: A north star." Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning 18 (1): 19-33.
Based on a review of literature for civic learning outcomes, the authors of this article propose a model for a civic-minded graduate, which involves the intersection of identify, educational experiences, and civic experiences within a cultural and social context. The authors then outline ten domains of civic learning outcomes organized according to knowledge, skills, dispositions, and behavioral intentions. All ten of the domains are manifest in literature on service-learning and civic engagement. The authors describe the instruments used to measure the civic-minded graduate construct and three studies conducted for the purpose of establishing validity of this construct. The article concludes with implications for practice in programs designed to promote civic development, using the construct of a civic-minded graduate as a metaphorical north star.
Bovill, Catherine, and Catherine Bulley. 2011. "A model of active student participation in curriculum design: exploring desirability and possibility." In Improving Student Learning (ISL) 18: Global Theories and Local Practices: Institutional, Disciplinary and Cultural Variations, edited by Chris Rust, 176-188. Oxford: Oxford Brookes University Centre for Staff and Learning Development.
The authors explore the desirability and possibility of active student participation (ASP) in curriculum design. They offer the description of the levels or forms of ASP in curriculum design by adapting Sherry Arnstein’s (1969) ladder model of citizen participation from community planning literature.
The adapted ladder is of particular interest to anyone willing to experiment with active student participation in either planning the entire curriculum, course or modifying some aspects of the course or assignment(s). Although the concept of a ladder might suggest that what’s on upper level is to be considered better, the authors say that this is not the case. Different levels of student participation depend on particular circumstances, faculty goals, etc. depending on institutional setting, faculty member’s comfort level with inviting students to collaborate on course design, the level of maturity and expertise of student body, they further argue that it might be desirable to increase active student participation slowly and in stages (p. 183).
Bovill and Bulley also give specific examples of what each ladder of ASP might look like in practice. For example, ‘Partnership – a negotiated curriculum’ could be “student experience and work used as basis for curriculum; students actively and meaningfully negotiating curriculum with tutor” (p. 181); ‘Students in control’ might involve “Student designed learning outcomes and projects. Student led journal clubs, student led journals” (p. 181). They also acknowledge that “[l]ocating examples of this top rung is challenging within the current higher education context, where our systems of quality assurance require courses to be validated and reviewed on the basis of clear intended learning outcomes and assessments”(p. 181).
As we implement more practices involving students as partners in curriculum design and development, the authors also note that there has to be more research done and evidence collected that evaluates the outcomes from different levels of ASP, as well as faculty and student experiences with partnership and its implications (p. 184).
Bovill, Cathy, and C J Bulley. 2011. "A model of active student participation in curriculum design: exploring desirability and possibility." In Improving Student Learning (ISL) 18: Global Theories and Local Practices: Institutional, Disciplinary and Cultural Variations, edited by C Rust, 176-188. Oxford: Oxford Brookes University Center for Staff and Learning Development.
The authors of the article explore the desirability and possibility of active student participation (ASP) in curriculum design. They offer the description of the levels or forms of ASP in curriculum design by adapting Sherry Arnstein’s (1969) ladder model of citizen participation from community planning literature.
The adapted ladder is of particular interest to anyone willing to experiment with active student participation in either planning the entire curriculum, course or modifying some aspects of the course or assignment(s). Although the concept of a ladder might suggest that what’s on upper level is to be considered better, the authors say that this is not the case. Different levels of student participation depend on particular circumstances, faculty goals, etc. depending on institutional setting, faculty member’s comfort level with inviting students to collaborate on course design, the level of maturity and expertise of student body, they further argue that it might be desirable to increase active student participation slowly and in stages (8).
Bovill and Bulley also give specific examples of what each ladder of ASP might look like in practice. For example, ‘Partnership – a negotiated curriculum’ could be “student experience and work used as basis for curriculum; students actively and meaningfully negotiating curriculum with tutor” (6); ‘Students in control’ might involve “Student designed learning outcomes and projects. Student led journal clubs, student led journals” (6). They also acknowledge that “[l]ocating examples of this top rung is challenging within the current higher education context, where our systems of quality assurance require courses to be validated and reviewed on the basis of clear intended learning outcomes and assessments”(6).
As we implement more practices involving students as partners in curriculum design and development, the authors also note that there has to be more research done and evidence collected that evaluates the outcomes from different levels of ASP, as well as faculty and student experiences with partnership and its implications (9).
Cook-Sather, Alison, and Zanny Alter. 2011. "What Is and What Can Be: How a Liminal Position Can Change Learning and Teaching in Higher Education." Anthropology & Education Quarterly 42 (1): 37-53.
Alison Cook-Sather and Zanny Alter focus on student experiences as pedagogical consultants in a faculty development program at Bryn Mawr and Haverford Colleges. The authors claim that this type of collaboration between student consultants, faculty and undergraduate students enrolled in a course has “the potential to transform deep-seated societal understandings of education based on traditional hierarchies and teacher/student distinctions” (p. 37). Cook-Sather and Alter borrow anthropological concept of liminality and revise it as “a threshold between and among clearly established roles at which one can linger, from which one can depart and to which one can return” (p. 38) to describe the shift in the relationship between faculty and students and emphasize the fact that having students as educational consultants falls outside of all previously established roles and categories in higher education system.
The context of Cook-Sather and Alter’s study is Bryn Mawr and Haverford Colleges’ Student as Learners and Teachers (SaLT) program, which employs students as pedagogical consultants to faculty. Both students and faculty go through an established training process. The authors report several important changes in both, students’ and faculty’s perception of teaching and learning, as well as the relationship between them, as a result of the experience:
In conclusion, the authors argue that such partnerships have a potential to move us toward a more democratic education: the potential to generate a democratic dialogue about teaching and learning between students and faculty.
Cook-Sather, Alison, Cathy Bovill, and Peter Felten. 2014. Engaging students as partners in learning and teaching: a guide for faculty. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
This book written by Alison Cook-Sather, Catherine Bovill and Peter Felten is an invaluable guide for everybody who wishes to develop student-faculty partnership in higher education institutions. Student-faculty partnership is a relatively new concept that recently has gained much popularity in the US and internationally. The authors of Engaging Students as Partners in Learning and teaching: A Guide for Faculty offer theoretical framework for developing such partnerships combined with very practical guidelines for those interested in developing small or large scale partnerships between faculty and students. The authors do an exceptional job of combining theory with practice, grounding their ideas on evidence-based pedagogy, while offering many practical examples for those who are thinking of developing small-scale partnerships with students in their courses or large-scale partnerships on the departmental and university levels.
Starting with the basic question of how faculty together with students can deepen learning, Cook-Sather, Bovill and Felten offer a compelling analysis of the nature of student-faculty partnerships, the reasons for faculty and for students to embark on such endeavor, and the essential elements for such partnership to be successful. When defining partnership, the authors maintain that there are three important principles to be taken into account: respect, reciprocity and responsibility. All of these basic characteristics of successful partnership set faculty and students up for developing trusting and respectful relationships, for sharing not only power, but also risks and responsibilities for learning.
Cook-Sather, Bovill, and Felten also recognize the challenges that this type of partnership between faculty and students faces serious challenges in the higher education system in the US and internationally. One of the most interesting claims they make is that such partnership destabilizes the consumerist model of higher education, in which students assume passive role in their process of education being on the receiving side of the expertise that faculty share with them. Unlike this model, faculty-student partnership allows students to have an active role in this process, designing not only what but also how they wish to learn. Such a change in students’ role promotes student engagement resulting in improved learning.
In various chapters of the book, the authors provide the definition, as well as guiding principles of student-faculty partnerships; answer questions and address concerns of the faculty who might wish to initiate a partnership of this kind; offer various examples of small and large-scale partnerships based on the needs, as well as resources available for individual faculty and for administrators, departments and universities; and detailed guidelines, combined with many examples, for initiating successful student-faculty partnerships on course design, curriculum development and pedagogy.
Cook-Sather, Alison, and Peter Felten. 2017. "Ethics of academic leadership: Guiding learning and teaching." In Cosmopolitan perspectives on academic leadership in higher education, edited by Feng Su and Margaret Wood, 175-191. London: Bloomsbury.
In this article, Cook-Sather and Felten draw on Appiah’s ‘rooted’ (2005) and Hansen’s ‘embodied’ (2014) cosmopolitanism to argue that academic leadership of current higher education system should not aim for some sort of uniform and universal values, but rather embrace the differences of the people and the circumstances of local environments. Leadership should consider partnership, and reciprocity upon which partnership is based, as fundamental for its success (p. 175). The authors recognize from the start that the ethics of reciprocity and partnership challenge western higher education system and that they, by proposing it, work against current dominant model(s) of the system. Quoting Hansen (2014, p. 4), Cook-Sather and Felten agree that education should cultivate “moral sympathies, deepened democratic dispositions, and a serious sense of responsibility for the world,” but instead, as it is practiced today, it functions as a way of “training human capital” for national and multinational economic markets (p. 177). Using Walker’s (2009) description, they argue that by today’s academic leadership education is perceived as “an instrumental investment to improve productivity, […] and its] interactions are reduced to profit-seeking exchanges (p. 177).
As a counterpoint to such “dehumanized” education system, Cook-Sather and Felten employ Nixon’s “ethics of connectivity” (2012), according to which certain fundamental changes should be introduced to the education system in order to bring the ‘human’ element back into focus: it should redirect its attention at the process of teaching and learning; let go of ‘learning outcomes’ since the value of learning lies in its un-determinability, in the open, unknown outcome of the process ([education] “constitutes an uncharted, unpredictable journey into self-awareness, self-understanding, and knowledge of the world in which we live”(p. 179)); and try to develop an inclusive and collaborative relationship between teachers and students (p. 178).
Cook-Sather and Felten focus on three major concepts that should define future education philosophy: liminality, reciprocity and partnership. They employ the term ‘liminal’ or ‘liminality’ to describe an ideal space for higher education institutions. It is a stance, that in their opinion and when taken willingly (not as an imposition), embraces ambiguity, marginality and in-betweenness. It refuses to adhere to “classifications that normally locate states and positions in cultural space” (p. 181). When positioned in a liminal space, one acquires a unique opportunity to challenge the assumptions that had turned into unquestionable and unquestioned truths though time. They write that when someone is in a liminal space, they are “ambiguous, neither here not there, betwixt and between all fixed points of pure possibility whence novel configurations of ideas and relations may arise” (p. 181). The concept of reciprocity, as described by the authors, entails “balanced give-and-take” (p. 181), although both sides might and should have different things to offer and to contribute. The difference in experiences and perspectives is not diminished in the process, but rather acquires a heightened value. Thus, education can become a perpetual dialogue between equal, but diverse parties that collectively share responsibility (p. 182). When it comes to partnership, Cook-Sather and Felten reiterate their definition of it stating that it is “a collaborative, reciprocal process through which all participants have the opportunity to contribute equally, although not necessarily in the same ways, to curricular or pedagogical conceptualization, decision making, implementation, investigation, or analysis” (p. 182).
Connecting these concepts back to cosmopolitanism, Cook-Sather and Felten remind us of the original Greek use of the term ‘kosmopolites’, meaning the ‘citizen of the world’ and referring to one’s obligation and responsibility towards all humans and their allegiance to humanity. But, also propose to consider the local realities, local interests, contexts and settings, following Appiah’s philosophy of ‘rooted’ cosmopolitanism in which there is no tension between the universal and the local. Viewing ‘unfinishedness’ as the very quality of education, of what “makes us educable” (p. 186), Cook-Sather and Felten propose that the leadership be open to new ideas, values and practices; that they reconsider education as a space of encounter, of a dialogue though which one acquires new identity, but this very identity is undetermined and can never be predicted.
Alison Cook-Sather and Zanny Alter focus on student experiences as pedagogical consultants in a faculty development program at Bryn Mawr and Haverford Colleges. The authors claim that this type of collaboration between student consultants, faculty and undergraduate students enrolled in a course has “the potential to transform deep-seated societal understandings of education based on traditional hierarchies and teacher/student distinctions” (37). Cook-Sather and Alter borrow anthropological concept of liminality and revise it as “a threshold between and among clearly established roles at which one can linger, from which one can depart and to which one can return,” (38) to describe the shift in the relationship between faculty and students and emphasize the fact that having students as educational consultants falls outside of all previously established roles and categories in higher education system.
The context of Cook-Sather and Alter’s study is Bryn Mawr and Haverford Colleges’ Student as Learners and Teachers (SaLT) program, which employs students as pedagogical consultants to faculty. Both students and faculty go through an established training process. The authors report several important changes in both, students’ and faculty’s perception of teaching and learning, as well as the relationship between them, as a result of the experience: a) it prompts literal and metaphorical (re)positioning of the student consultants in the classroom, changing their perspective on learning and teaching, as well as their traditional roles as students; b) It exposes the participants to ambiguity and vulnerability, which in the end helps in developing the capacity to be between “all fixed points of classification” (48); c) Student consultants report becoming better students as they are able to understand better the professors’ perspectives and goals and experience deeper learning as a result of being exposed to multiple angles; d) Faculty report being more willing to shift their teaching and more open to a dialogue with students; move towards less hierarchical and more dialogic understanding of teaching and learning; e) Students report being willing to take more responsibility for their education and active participants in their education.
This study written by Alison Cook-Sather, Catherine Bovill and Peter Felten is an invaluable guide for everybody who wishes to develop student-faculty partnership in higher education institutions. Student-faculty partnership is a relatively new concept that recently has gained much popularity in the US and internationally. The authors of Engaging Students as Partners in Learning and teaching: A Guide for Faculty offer theoretical framework for developing such partnerships combined with very practical guidelines for those interested in developing small or large scale partnerships between faculty and students. The authors do an exceptional job of combining theory with practice, grounding their ideas on evidence-based pedagogy, while offering many practical examples for those who are thinking of developing small-scale partnerships with students in their courses or large-scale partnerships on the departmental and university levels.
Cook-Sather, Bovill, and Felten also recognize the challenges that this type of partnership between faculty and students faces serious challenges in the higher education system in the US and internationally. One of the most interesting claims they make is that such partnership destabilizes the consumerist model of higher education, in which students assume passive role in their process of education being on the receiving side of the expertize that faculty share with them. Unlike this model, faculty-student partnership allows students to have an active role in this process, designing not only what but also how they whish to learn. Such a change in students’ role promotes student engagement resulting in improved learning.
Healey, Mick, Abbi Flint, and Kathy Harrington. 2014. Engagement through partnership: Students as partners in learning and teaching in higher education. York: Higher Education Academy.
Writing primarily for the teaching faculty in higher education institutions worldwide with interest in engaging students as partners in learning and teaching, as well as for the administrative staff willing to develop institutional culture of partnership, Mick Healey, Abbi Flint, and Kathy Harrington’s Report titled Engagement through partnership: students as partners in learning and teaching in higher education (2014) claims that developing partnerships between faculty and students in the area of teaching and learning is a pedagogically sound endeavor for it generates student engagement and, consequently, delivers better learning experience.
As authors make a pedagogical case for developing student-faculty partnerships in learning and teaching in higher education, they offer a conceptual model for exploring the areas in which students and faculty can work together; outline the models for sustainable and successful partnerships; identify tensions that might arise with the shifts in power relationships, risk-taking, the development of trust, etc.; and, identify areas for further research.
Healey, Flint and Harrington view student-faculty partnership as a process rather than goal and outcomes driven activity and, as such, one that has the potential to dramatically transform the purpose and structure of higher education that is largely based on delivering results in the form of outcomes through assessment. The authors maintain that unlike the current model that is end-oriented, the student-faculty partnership is pedagogy that is “(radically) open to and creating possibilities for discovering and learning something that cannot be known beforehand” (p. 9).
Manor, Christopher, Stephen Bloch-Shulman, Kelly Flannery, and Peter Felten. 2010. "Foundations of Student-Faculty Partnerships in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning." In Engaging Students Voices in the Study of Teaching and Learning, edited by Carmen Werder and Megan Otis, 3-15. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
The authors begin by outlining some of the shortcomings of the traditional instructional model in higher education, arguing that in this model students feel powerless, as if decisions were made for them instead of by them. Professors are viewed as the only experts in the room, developing in students a fundamental misconception about teaching and learning as a process through which knowledge is transferred from one to another, rather than a process during which meaning is co-constructed. Such misconception also devalues the opinions and the input of their peers, whose thoughts are dismissed as irrelevant and unimportant. All of this in the end translates into student disengagement with the process of learning, with the material and with their peers.
This traditional model of education is challenged by student-faculty partnership on the scholarship of teaching and learning. Through partnership, students acquire voice and with it, a greater responsibility for their education. Simultaneously, faculty is prompted to listen to student voices and accommodate them, relinquishing the authority that was previously assumed and unquestioned. Hence, partnership causes decentralization and disaggregation of the classroom as power is now shared between the instructor and the students, which in itself, fosters a more democratic model of teaching and learning.
From the SoTL perspective, student-faculty partnerships shift the focus from teaching (faculty) to learning (students) and allow students to ask questions related to SoTL research.
Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy, Sam L. Drovakova, Kelly E. Matthews, Sofia Abbot, Breagh Cheng, Peter Felten, and Kelly Swaim. 2017. "A Systematic Literature Review of Students as Partners in Higher Education." International Journal for Students as Partners 1 (2): 1-23.
In this comprehensive literature review on the subject of Students as Partners (SaP) Mercer-Mapstone et al. are guided by an overarching question about “[h]ow are “students as partners” practices in higher education presented in the academic literature” (p. 4). The article offers a comprehensive analysis of the percentage of publications authored by faculty/academic staff, undergraduate students, and post doctoral researchers; percentage of publications coming from specific disciplines, as well as the types of partnerships frequently undertaken, a detailed and clear picture of the positive and, in some cases, negative, outcomes of student-faculty engagement, and finally, proposes areas within the subject of student-faculty partnership for further investigation and development.
The authors also address some of the major characteristics of student-faculty partnerships, highlighting the importance of reciprocity in the relationship, which can be understood as a form of shared responsibility in the process of learning, shared goals and risks, viewing students as co-learners and/or colleagues, i.e. a relationship that destabilizes the traditional power hierarchy between the faculty and students. Interestingly, the authors conclude that the analysis of current scholarship about subject of student-faculty partnerships shows that this does not always translate into shared authorship: the vast majority of research published on the topic of SaP is authored primarily by faculty, concluding that “[w]hile our literature review captured a plethora of SaP practices premised on the ideals of reciprocity and shared responsibility, the artifacts (publications) of those interactions tended to be staff-centric” (p. 14).
Werder, Carmen, Shevell Thibou, and Blair Kaufer. 2012. "Students as co-inquirers: A requisite threshold Concept in educational development." Journal of Faculty Development 26 (3): 34-38.
This essay describes Carmen Werder’s, Shevell Thibou’s and Blair Kaufer’s experiences with student-faculty collaborations on course and curricular development and the ways in which these experiences have been transformational for each. This is one of the few studies co-authored by a faculty member, a graduate student and an undergraduate student who participated in student-faculty collaborative process on curricular development. The process was part of the Teaching-Learning Academy (TLA) at Western Washington University. As the authors state, the essay “explores how partnering with students to study teaching and learning constitutes a threshold concept that is transformational, irreversible, and discursive”(p. 34).
The authors consider student-faculty partnership to be “threshold learning” because it opens up new and previously unconceivable ways of understanding something. After the experience with such partnership, both students and faculty comment that there is no way back for them. Students have developed a new and different understanding of their learning and are more enthusiastic, more motivated to learn. They comment that learning, as a result of the partnership, has started to excite them as it turned into a dialogic and community building activity, creating a welcoming space for faculty and students to share freely what they thought and/or knew.
As the authors reflect on their experience, they point out several important shifts in their understanding of teaching and learning that seem transformational. They start to: a) understand learning as a dialogic experience that is divergent and difference driven; b) question the power structure and the hierarchical dynamics inherent in contemporary education system that make it difficult for students to be active learners; and c) value equality that comes with partnership and that enables all participants to have a voice in the decision making process.
Bauer, Karen W., and Joan S. Bennett. 2003. "Alumni perceptions used to assess undergraduate research experience." The Journal of Higher Education 74: 210-230. https://doi.org/10.1353/jhe.2003.0011.
Past studies have examined current students’ perceptions of UR. These authors asked University of Delaware alumni about their participation in a number of campus activities, including UR. They were asked to rate whether their skills were enhanced because of their undergraduate degree on 32 items (e.g., write effectively, use statistics or math formulas, carry out research, maintain openness to new ideas, etc.). Some participants had participated in the university’s formal UR program (URP alumni), some stated they had engaged in UR but were not in the formal program (self-reported UR), and some had not engaged in UR (non-research alumni). URP alumni reported the most benefits from engaging in UR when compared to the other two groups, particularly for those who had completed a senior thesis. Both research groups stated that they were better able to carry out research than the non-research alumni group, with the highest scores from the URP alumni. URP alumni also scored higher than non-research alumni on other skills like intellectual curiosity, acquiring information independently, acting as a leader, and speaking effectively. For all alumni who engaged in research, those who participated for longer expressed greater benefit from the experience. UR had clear benefits for students as measured by their attitudes and self-reported skills.
Gilmore, Joanna, Michelle Vieyra, Briana Timmerman, David Feldon, and Michelle Maher. 2015. "The relationship between undergraduate research participation and subsequent research performance of early career STEM graduate students." The Journal of Higher Education 86: 834-863.
While many studies on the benefits of UR have used self-report measures, this study used research skill performance in graduate school as its main measure. All students were first year graduate students in a STEM program. They wrote research proposals at the beginning and end of their first year of graduate school. Some of these students had engaged in UR as undergraduates and some had not. Two trained raters independently evaluated the proposals using a pre-established rubric (composed of four subscales) and inter-rater reliability was high. On the pre-proposal, students with UR experience outperformed those without UR experience on 3 of the 4 subscales (Data Presentation, Results, Total Score). On the post-proposal, students with UR also outperformed the other group on all parts of the rubric except Introduction and Context. The authors underscored the importance of UR for successful graduate school performance.
Kinkead, Joyce. 2003. "Learning through inquiry: An overview of undergraduate research." New Directions for Teaching and Learning 93: 5-17.
Kinkead (2003) defined UR, explored its importance in the undergraduate experience, and identified key UR programs at various institutions. She noted that although the elite students (honors) are typically engaged in UR, at risk and underrepresented students also benefit from engaging in UR. Kinkead (2003) also discussed institutional UR issues like administration, funding, and resources.
Lopatto, David. 2007. "Undergraduate research experiences support science career decisions and active learning." CBE-Life Sciences Education 6: 297-306. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.07-06-0039.
Students engaging in summer research completed the SURE (Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences) and an altered version again 9 months later to see if their perceptions changed over time. Students reported similar gains on both surveys on items like understanding of the research process and readiness for more demanding research. Some participants engaged in summer research programs away from their home institutions. These students reported higher scores on clarifying their career path, science writing skills, and self-confidence. These students were also more likely to finish their research project in the summer when compared to students who stayed at their own campus. Minority students reported similar gains (if not greater gains) than other students. Further, a comparison of summer survey and follow-up survey results showed that student perceptions were stable over time. The author concluded with a discussion of methodological issues in UR research.
Lopatto, David. 2010. "Undergraduate research as a high-impact student experience." Peer Review 12.
Lopatto (2010) described the benefits of UR and that standardized measures of those benefits can be accomplished using online assessments like the SURE survey. He also discussed the importance of a research community that can include peer mentors. The author also focused on the importance of integrating UR into the curriculum during the academic year. One potential model is CURE. He concluded with a discussion of future directions that includes interdisciplinary research.
Olin Shanahan, Jenny, Elizabeth Ackley-Holbrook, Eric Hall, Kearsley Stewart, and Helen Walkington. 2015. "Ten salient practices of undergraduate research mentors: A review of the literature." Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning 23: 359-376. https://doi.org/10.1080/13611267.2015.1126162.
The authors conducted a literature review that focused on UR mentors’ practices. They wanted to know what effective mentorship looks like, because mentorship is the basis for successful UR. They described ten salient mentoring practices: strategic pre-planning; clear and well-scaffolded expectations; teach technical skills, method, and techniques; balance rigorous expectations with emotional support; build community among team members; dedicate time to one-on-one mentoring; increase student ownership over time; support student professional development; create opportunities for peer-mentoring; and guide students through dissemination.
Russell, Susan H., Mary P. Hancock, and James McCullough. 2007. "Benefits of undergraduate research experiences." Science 316: 548-549.
The authors’ paper focused on UR in the sciences and included surveys of 15,000 students and mentors. They found that UR students are demographically diverse, are mostly juniors and seniors, have higher GPAs, and are more likely to want to obtain a higher degree than non-researchers. The authors described several positive outcomes of engaging in UR, including increased confidence and a clarified interest in STEM.
Seymour, Elaine, Anne B. Hunter, Sandra L. Laursen, and Tracee Deantoni. 2004. "Establishing the benefits of research experiences for undergraduates in the sciences: First findings from a three year study." Science Education 88: 493-534. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.10131.
The authors studied the costs and benefits of engaging in UR. The student participants were engaged in a summer research program for rising seniors at one of four liberal arts institutions. Students were positive about their experiences. The largest reported gains were in confidence at working as a scientist. Students noted that their research and problem-solving skills were enhanced as was their disciplinary knowledge. Many students also discussed large improvement in their communication and lab skills. Students valued the time with their mentors as well as working with other colleagues. Several also gained clarity regarding their career pathway and felt better prepared for graduate school. The authors also discussed their plans for further research with these data.
Taraban, Roman, and Erin Rogue. 2012. "Academic factors that affect undergraduate research experiences." Journal of Educational Psychology 104: 499-514. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026851.
These researchers used the Undergraduate Research Questionnaire (URQ) to assess the cognitive benefits of engaging in UR. The URQ’s subscales are Academic Mindset, Research Mindset, Research Methods, Faculty Support, and Peer Support. Biology and psychology students participated in the study. More research hours and lab course credits were related with higher enthusiasm for research. The frequency of faculty hours also mattered. More hours meeting with faculty was related to higher scores on Research Mindset and Research Methods. GPA also predicted scores on all five subscales, indicating that students with higher GPAs benefited more than those with lower GPAs. The authors conclude that we need to pay attention to student differences in UR.
Robertson, Liane, Kara Taczak, and Kathleen B. Yancey. 2012. "Notes Toward A Theory of Prior Knowledge and Its Role in College Composers' Transfer of Knowledge and Practice." Composition Forum 26. http://compositionforum.com/issue/26/prior-knowledge-transfer.php.
Tuomi-Grohn, Terttu, and Yrjo Engestrom, eds. 2003. Between School and Work: New Perspectives on Transfer and Boundary Crossing. Oxford: Pergamon.
Wardle, Elizabeth. 2007. "Understanding 'Transfer' from FYC: Preliminary Results of a Longitudinal Study." WPA Journal 31 (1-2): 65-85.
Yancey, Kathleen, Liane Robertson, and Kara Taczak. 2014. Writing Across Contexts: Transfer, Composition, and Sites of Writing. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
In Writing across Contexts, Yancey, Robertson, and Taczak draw from studies of transfer, reflective practice, and learning more broadly as they examine the role of curriculum in promoting (or not promoting) students’ transfer of writing knowledge and practices from first-year composition (FYC) to future writing contexts. They compared an expressivist approach, a media and culture theme, and the Teaching for Transfer design for teaching FYC by interviewing faculty, analyzing course materials and students’ writing, and interviewing students both during the semester they were enrolled in FYC and in the subsequent semester.
In brief, students in the expressivist FYC course seemingly drew from prior (high school) experiences with writing, but they did not tap their FYC course content when they wrote for future courses. Similarly, students in the media and culture themed FYC drew on models and process strategies in subsequent writing contexts, since they had not developed rhetorical analysis strategies or writing theories in FYC to guide their examination of and responses to future writing situations. Yancey, Robertson, and Taczak write:
Without discernible content, students fill in their own content; without a theory on which to build and apply knowledge, Carolina turned to models and Darren turned to process. In cases like this – when content or theory is absent or indiscernible, and especially when it is perceived to be at odds with writing in other university sites – models of writing become the teacher and the curriculum…. Too much “floating” content – content unmoored to specific writing theory or practice – resulted in a lack of cohesion, a common thread absent throughout the course design that students could discern or use as a guide or passport. (pp. 87-88)
In other words, regardless of how good a teacher might be, if the FYC curriculum doesn’t supply students with writing-relevant content and with a theory for organizing that content as it relates to understanding and responding to varied writing contexts, students are unlikely to apply their FYC experience to writing in subsequent courses and extracurricular contexts.
In the Teaching for Transfer (TFT) design, students learn key terms central to analyzing, practicing, and theorizing writing (e.g., genre, audience, rhetorical situation, etc.) and develop their own theories of writing. Reflection also plays a key role in students’ theory-building processes. While not all students in the TFT FYC course in Yancey, Robertson, and Taczak’s study engaged in mindful transfer from FYC to their subsequent writing contexts, two of the three case study students “kept building their theory of writing, then, connecting key terms and concepts to one another and layering in new concepts as they learned them” and “they became increasingly sophisticated at articulating and practicing their theory of writing” (p. 99). The curriculum’s grounding in writing’s key terms helped students build ways of thinking about and practices for engaging with future writing contexts.
Writing across Contexts offers a helpful framework for discussing how a FYC curriculum grounded in writing content can help students assemble and remix writing knowledge in ways that promote transfer to other writing contexts. Additionally, the authors share sample course policies and syllabi, major assignments, and semester schedules for the Teaching for Transfer design in the book’s appendices.