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Bean, Janet, Christina Beaudoin, Tania von der Heidt, David I Lewis, and Carol Van Zile-Tamsen. 2023. "Frames Definitions and Drivers: A Multidimensional Study of Institutionally Required Undergraduate Capstones." In Cultivating Capstones: Designing High-Quality Culminating Experiences for Student Learning, edited by Caroline J Ketcham, Anthony G Weaver and Jessie L Moore, 27-40. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
This chapter examines the language colleges and universities use to represent required undergraduate capstone experiences. How do institutions frame capstones, and what do these frames tell us about the goals of culminating experiences and the drivers of institutional change?
In “Making the Case for Capstones and Signature Work,” Nancy Budwig and Amy Jessen-Marshall lay out various theoretical frameworks for culminating experiences, from workplace preparation to effective citizenship to student learning. But how do institutions make use of these frames in practice? More specifically, how do institutions that are fully committed to capstones—those that require them of all undergraduate students—represent this high-impact experience?
To answer these questions, the chapter authors conducted a systematic review of 481 colleges and universities in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Based on their public-facing documents (e.g., programs of study, course catalogs, and undergraduate bulletins), fifty-five of these institutions require a capstone for all baccalaureate degrees, representing 4% of UK, 5% of Australian, and 15% of US institutions.
For these 55 institutions, the authors analyzed descriptions of required capstones to identify prominent themes—integration, communication, critical thinking, connection to future goals, application, etc. These themes provide insight into how institutions define capstones, what they hope students learn from them, and the complex forces that motivate institutions to embrace this labor-intensive practice.
Bell , Sandra, Frederick T. Evers, Shannon Murray, and Margaret Anne Smith. 2023. "Adapting A Capstone: Projects and Portfolios Across Four Courses and Three Institutions." In Cultivating Capstones: Designing High-Quality Culminating Experiences for Student Learning, edited by Caroline J Ketcham, Anthony G Weaver and Jessie L Moore, 113-124. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
This chapter tells the story of how a capstone course for fourth-year students was adopted and adapted into four courses across three institutions and various disciplines, with plans now to bring it to a fourth university. Each course leader highlights adaptations made based on discipline and institution, and offers lessons learned about encouraging enrollment, bringing colleagues on board, connecting to the broader community, and making sure each course outlives its initial champions.
Founded on the work of the Senior Year Experience work at National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition, the courses varied in their readings and focus but all had as their goals the integration of students’ degree learning and an intentional transition from university to the rest of life. An Action Project and Skills Portfolio are major components of the course and were adapted to fit the discipline of English Literature and expanded as a capstone requirement for the Applied Communication, Leadership, and Culture program. It was further adapted to the University of New Brunswick Saint John context, where faculty highlights aspects of reflection and transitioning, included an ePortfolio, and invited a range of alumni to talk about their learning and employment experiences.
With each iteration, instructors have shifted the readings and focus depending on the discipline but have adhered to the connection between that discipline and the world beyond campus walls. The Skills Portfolio has been adapted to changes in job search expectations, moving from mainly paper to mainly online portfolios. But two basic principles persist: students look back at their degrees by using the tools those degrees have taught them; and they look forward to their post-degree lives with an adaptable portfolio that helps them articulate their skills, knowledge, and attributes.
Des, Butler , Sandra Coe, Rachael Field, Judith McNamara, Sally Kift, and Catherine Brown. 2017. "Embodying life-long learning." Transition and capstone experiences, Oxford Review of Education 43 (2): 194-208.
Butler, Des, Sandra Coe, Rachael Field, Judith McNamara, Sally Kift, and Catherine Brown. 2017. "Embodying Life-Long Learning: Transition and Capstone Experiences." Oxford Review of Education 43 (2): 194-208. https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2016.1270199.
This case study describes the first of six principles, which informed the development of a capstone design for Australian legal education, and according to the authors, should inform the development of any capstone. The authors focus on Transition–the first of their selected principles–as a theoretical framework for the pedagogical design they develop. They extend Kift’s Transition Pedagogy, an adaptation of Schlossberg that focuses on first year students, to inform final year practices—viewing final year students as students in transition, too. The authors identify three areas in which the incorporation of transition pedagogy can enhance a capstone experience and help students manage uncertainty, complexity, and change; develop a professional identity; and career plan. While the case study doesn’t cover the implementation of the capstone design, the study can offer a useful model for capstone development. Additionally, the transition framework does a helpful job of linking student development theory (and Schlossberg’s theory of transition) with pedagogy and ends with qualitative data from students as evidence of the necessity of the framework.
Collier, Peter J. 2000. "The effects of completing a capstone course on student identity." Sociology of Education 73 (4): 285-299.
Collier, Peter J. 2000. "The Effects of Completing a Capstone Course on Student Identity." Sociology of Education 73 (4): 285-299. https://doi.org/10.2307/2673235.
Collier’s article studies the effect of participation in a capstone experience on undergraduate students’ identification as a college student. He proposes that the increased identification with this role by capstone students over time indicate capstones’ effectiveness in socialization. Using different identity theories around role identities and role-identity acquisition as theoretical frameworks, Collier developed a longitudinal study of 26 senior capstone students (multidisciplinary and across the university) of one year’s capstone at a university, with a nonequivalent control group (n=26). Using pre- and post-measurements, Collier found that the nature of the capstone as a grounded and experiential course contributed to its transformative impact on students. Students connecting with the community in a capstone context were pushed to work more collaboratively, and this social aspect of their learning and work helped them to associate more strongly with the role of a college student. The development of identity as a student is a potential strength of capstones. However, Collier fails to discuss why developing a student identity–especially in the senior year–is a worthwhile or positive practice, nor does he discuss how that student identity intersects with other social identities a student may hold. Collier does offer several practical implications for curriculum and specifically capstone development.
Dunlap, Joanna C. 2005. "Problem-Based Learning and Self-Efficacy: How a Capstone Course Prepares Students for a Profession." Educational Technology Research and Development 53 (1): 65-83. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02504858.
Dunlap employed a mixed methods approach to study the self-efficacy of 31 students in a required undergraduate capstone course. She analyzed guided journal submissions and triangulated those responses with student responses to a survey tool called the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, a 10-item scale that “assesses optimistic self-beliefs to cope with a variety of difficult demands in life” (73). Her findings—that students’ participation in a problem-based learning environment impacts students’ sense of capability, especially looking forward to career prospects and their sense of professional identity—offer data to support why capstones serve as a powerful facilitator of transition for students. While her findings are most specific to problem-based learning, a related high impact practice, their basis in a capstone context may help support the development of positively impactful capstone experiences.
Dunlap, Joanna C, and . 2005. " Problem-based learning and self-efficacy: How a capstone course prepares students for a profession." Educational Technology Research & Development 53 (1): 65-85.
Eady, Michelle J, and Simon Bedford. 2023. "Peer Reviewing to Support Quality Assurance of Capstone Experiences: A view from Australia." In Cultivating Capstones: Designing High-Quality Culminating Experiences for Student Learning, edited by Caroline J Ketcham, Anthony G Weaver and Jessie L Moore, 191-203. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
This chapter describes a quality assurance system of collaborative sharing across multiple institutions in Australia and explores, through participant reflections, how such practice can help promote staff confidence and improve facilitation of capstone tasks in the tertiary setting resulting in benefits that derive from a multi-institution approach. A project team consisting of peers from similar disciplines across several institutions in Australia worked together on the project funded by the Australian Office of Learning and Teaching (OLT). Their work verified student attainment standards in the revised national Higher Education Standards Framework (Threshold Standards) (2015) using capstone tasks in coursework at their given institutions. The External Referencing of Standards (ERoS) project was a collaboration between four universities each located in different States: University of Wollongong in New South Wales, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) in Victoria, Queensland University of Technology (QUT) in Queensland and Curtin University in Western Australia. This chapter describes the ERoS project, the objectives, and outputs so that other institutions can adapt and employ similar models to ensure quality assessment in their capstone tasks and beyond.
Gresham , Morgan, Caroline Boswell, Olivia S Anderson, Matthew J Laye, and Dawn Smith-Sherwood. 2023. "Understanding Faculty Needs in Capstone Experiences." In Cultivating Capstones: Designing High-Quality Culminating Experiences for Student Learning, edited by Caroline J Ketcham, Anthony G Weaver and Jessie L Moore, 167-178. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
This chapter shares results from a mixed-method, multi-institutional study gauging the type of faculty who teach capstone experiences, their intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, and the type of support they receive at their institutions. Henscheid (2000) found that almost half of 707 regionally accredited colleges and universities use capstones as part of their institution’s assessment program and the 2010-2011 HERI Faculty Survey indicated that 35.8% of respondents had taught a Capstone course. The 2016–2017 HERI Faculty Survey indicated that just half of undergraduate teaching faculty participated in teaching-related professional development opportunities and that a majority of faculty surveyed (69.2%) agree that there is adequate support for faculty development. The results shared in this chapter paint a different picture of faculty desire for resources and support in teaching capstone experiences. In a survey of 138 faculty, less than half found the availability of resources “good” or “excellent,” with 14% of those surveyed saying that resources were not even available to them. It is vital that faculty members preparing to develop and teach capstone experiences have access to the resources they need to help them be successful. To that end, this chapter provides a common support needs checklist; a set of heuristics that help faculty identify what resources may be most helpful for them at the particular moment and guided by the tensions/pressures/motivations they experience in their particular context; and a how to guide to structure a significant conversation.
Henscheid, Jean M., Tracy L. Skipper, and Dallin George Young. 2019. "Reflection, Integration, Application: Intentional Design Strategies for Senior Capstone Experiences." New Directions for Higher Education 2019 (188): 91-100. https://doi.org/10.1002/he.20349.
Henscheid, Skipper, and Young identify the importance of reflection, integration, and application in their piece about Intentional Design Strategies for Senior Capstone Experiences. They suggest that these three elements can aid in developing advanced “analytical and critical thinking, communication skills, employment skills, problem-solving competencies, and team-building.” In addition, in order to foster an environment in which reflection, integration, and application are used to their fullest potential there must be a meaningful educational experience for the student. Something unique and quite important is the acknowledgment that a meaningful educational experience can be different for each individual. Overall, the piece unfolds how to build experiences that “provide structured opportunities for applied learning.”
The authors describe four capstone experiences that promote application of learning:
These experiences, not only are reflective in nature but also suggest that the student take time to reflect on their own interests, needs, and desires, as they move forward in integrating and applying what they have learned.
This piece expands on different ways in which students can engage in learning experiences that support reflection, integration, and application. Breaking down examples of these types of learning experiences can help us to better understand what elements of those experiences really lend themselves to cycles of reflection, integration, and application.
Annotation contributed by Sophie Miller, 2021-2024 CEL Student Scholar
Julien, B. L., L. Lexis, J. Schuijers, T. Samiric, and S. McDonald. 2012. "Using capstones to develop research skills and graduate capabilities: A case study from physiology." Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice 9 (3): 1-15.
Julien, Brianna L, Louise Lexis, Johannes Schuijers, Tom Samiric, and Stuart McDonald. 2012. "Using Capstones to Develop Research Skills and Graduate Capabilities: A Case Study from Physiology." Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice 9 (3): 58-73. https://doi.org/10.53761/220.127.116.11.
This case study describes two physiology capstones that culminate the Bachelor of Health Science at La Trobe University. The authors describe the student assessments involved in the capstones and evaluate the program itself based on student performance, student feedback, and faculty perceptions of the course. The authors found that final grades for students were significantly higher in 2011, following the implementation of the capstone course than final grades in the previous two years. Students reported positive skill development and satisfaction, and instructors noticed a higher degree of student-centered learning along with a “vastly increased workload” and “greater need for infrastructure services” (11). The value of this case study is not only the model it provides for capstone development, but also the consideration of staffing and resource needs to support strong capstone experiences. Other institutions looking to launch or revise capstone experiences would do well to recognize this resource challenge.
Ketcham , Caroline J, Anthony G Weaver, and Jessie L Moore. 2023. Cultivating Capstones: Designing High-Quality Culminating Experiences for Student Learning. Elon, NC: The Center for Engaged Learning.
Cultivating Capstones introduces higher education faculty and administrators to the landscape of capstone experiences, offers research-informed models that institutions could adapt for their own contextual goals, and suggests faculty development strategies to support implementation of high-quality student learning experiences. The edited collection draws primarily from multi-year, multi-institutional, and mixed-methods studies conducted by participants in the 2018-2020 Center for Engaged Learning research seminar on Capstone Experiences; this work is complemented by chapters by additional scholars focused on culminating experiences.
The collection is divided into three sections. Part one offers typographies of capstones, illustrating the diversity of experiences included in this high-impact practice while also identifying essential characteristics that contribute to high-quality culminating experiences for students. Part two shares specific culminating experiences (e.g., seminar courses in general education curricula, capstone experiences in the major, capstone research projects in a multi-campus early college program, capstone ePortfolios, etc.), with examples from multiple institutions and strategies for adapting them for readers’ own campus contexts. Part three offers research-informed strategies for professional development to support implementation of high-quality student learning experiences across a variety of campus contexts.
Learn more at Cultivating Capstones – Center for Engaged Learning
Kilgo, Cindy A., Ezell Sheets, Jessica K. , and Pascarella T. Ernest. 2015. "The link between high-impact practices and student learning: Some longitudinal evidence." Higher Education 69 (4): 509-525.
Kilgo, Cindy A, Jessica K Ezell Sheets, and Ernest T Pascarella. 2014. "The Link between High-Impact Practices and Student Learning: Some Longitudinal Evidence." Higher Education 69 (4): 509-525. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-014-9788-z.
This study used pre- and post-tests to estimate the efficacy of the 10 high impact practices supported by AAC&U and found that overall, the high impact practices do, in fact, support student learning. They found that active, collaborative learning and undergraduate research were especially effective in promoting critical thinking, cognition, and intercultural effectiveness, while capstones (among other HIPs) had more mixed effects. For capstones in particular, the authors found a negative link to critical thinking, “but positive net association with four-year gains in need for cognition” (519). The authors highlight several other specific positive gains in student learning as a result of capstones, and this data can be especially helpful in advocating not only for the value of capstones themselves, but in the value of intentionally designed capstones. The multi-institutional results help generalize the benefits, and even more importantly point to areas where negative links occurred, suggesting that administration and facilitation are key in capstones actually having high (positive) impact.
Kirkscey, Russell, Julie Vale, James M. Weiss, and Jennifer Hill. 2021. "Capstone Experience Purposes: An International, Multidisciplinary Study." Teaching & Learning Inquiry 9 (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.20343/teachlearninqu.9.2.19.
Kirkscey, Russell, David I Lewis, and Julie Vale. 2023. "Capstone Influences and Purposes." In Cultivating Capstones: Designing High-Quality Culminating Experiences for Student Learning, edited by Caroline Ketcham, Anthony G Weaver and Jessie L Moore, 41-54. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
This chapter provides a holistic, high-level overview of the global capstone landscape by reviewing a sampling of institutional objectives, faculty goals, and student perceptions of the outcomes of capstone. The chapter provides an inventory of capstone purposes presented in the framework of “what could a capstone be?” These purposes are gleaned from institutional documents, faculty perceptions of capstones, and student perceptions of capstone purposes.
Discussion centers around institutional decisions about capstones, such as disciplinary vs non-disciplinary, required vs elective, etc. and includes commentary on the drivers or influences on capstone purposes such as institutional, disciplinary, or accrediting body requirements. Next, the chapter includes case studies of exemplars of capstone courses.
Laye, Matthew J., Caroline Boswell, Morgan Gresham, Dawn Smith-Sherwood, and Olivia S. Anderson. 2020. "Multi-Institutional Survey of Faculty Experiences Teaching Capstones." College Teaching 68 (4): 201-213. https://doi.org/10.1080/87567555.2020.1786663.
Lee, Nicolette, and Daniel Loton. 2017. "Capstone purposes across disciplines." Studies in Higher Education: 1-17.
Lee, Nicolette, and Daniel Loton. 2017. "Capstone Purposes across Disciplines." Studies in Higher Education 44 (1): 134-50. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2017.1347155.
This literature review analyzes the purposes of capstones as presented by faculty involved in capstone design and instruction. This review is valuable in offering a broad overview of capstone literature and present understandings—for example, capstones are frequently linked to development of employability skills and personal student attributes. In addition to a review of the literature, Lee and Loton conducted an online survey of 216 capstone educators internationally (with just over three–quarters originating from Australia, the authors’ base). Here, they found the 20 most highly rated purposes for capstones were similarly rated across disciplinary groups—implying they serve a common purpose regardless of discipline. The survey responses echoed what has been focused on broadly in the literature and adds some nuance that will be useful to readers seeking to understand capstones at an introductory level. Finally, the purposes raised may help designers of capstones identify shared purposes from which to backward design the capstone experience.
Lewis, David I., Janet Bean, Christina Beaudoin, Carol Van Zile- Tamsen, and Tania von der Heidt. 2023. "Cultivating Capstones Designing High-Quality Culminating Experiences for Student Learning." In Cultivating Capstones: Designing High-Quality Culminating Experiences for Student Learning, edited by Caroline J. Ketcham , Anthony G. Weaver and Jessie L. Moore, 85-98. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
Traditionally in the biosciences, students have undertaken laboratory-based, fieldwork, or literature review capstones. However, less than ten percent of bioscience graduates go onto careers in scientific research; the overwhelming majority leave science altogether. Traditional bioscience capstones do not provide the requisite work experience or skills development for the diverse range of career paths followed by the majority of our graduates. There is a need to provide capstone opportunities that better prepare our students for the 21st Century workplace, a focus on providing the requisite work experience or skills development for the diverse range of career paths followed by the majority of our graduates.
This chapter details the 20-year journey of taking a discipline specific capstone course and evolving it into a course with a focus on personal and professional development, and preparation for the workplace, giving students the opportunity to select from 15 different formats of capstone. This design enables students to decide what they want to achieve personally and professionally from their capstone, creating a safe space to try out different career opportunities, and choose accordingly. The chapter functions as a comprehensive source of information for colleagues, irrespective of discipline, seeking to broaden the range of capstones available to their students, or those seeking to create capstone opportunities giving students greater ownership of their educational experiences and of their personal and professional development.
McGrath, Moriah McSharry, Sarah Dyer, and Trina Jorre St Jorre. 2023. "Positionality and Identity in Capstones: Renegotiating the Self through Teaching and Learning." In Cultivating Capstones: Designing High-Quality Culminating Experiences for Student Learning, edited by Caroline J Ketcham, Anthony G Weaver and Jessie L Moore, 203-214. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
This chapter argues that fostering inclusive and transformative capstone experiences requires understanding the interplay of various identities and social positions in the learning context. Diversity is generally viewed as a characteristic of the student body or a state to be pursued, camouflaging the fact that social identities are a set of power relationships that both structure social interaction, such as capstone experiences, and that are themselves restructured through social interaction. This notion is explored in relation to both student and faculty identities recognizing that faculty identities are often subsumed by their institutional role and/or the presumption that their academic training has socialized them to the milieu. Through embedded qualitative research at five English-language universities in high-income countries, we identified moments and processes where diversity, identity, and inclusion are (re)negotiated through social interactions as a strategy for our research to find “openings” where hegemonic power can be disrupted in favor of inclusive excellence. Authors conceive capstone experiences as a “project of becoming” for those involved. As the culminating experience, the capstone represents both the pinnacle of and also the cusp of transition beyond students’ university career. From these findings, salient and hidden aspects of diversity and identity are identified that affect capstones and offer a set of curricular tools to improve capstone quality through more inclusive approaches to teaching.
Paris, David, and Ann Ferren. 2013. "How students, faculty, and institutions can fulfill the promise of capstones." Peer Review, 15 (4).
Paris, David, and Ann Ferren. 2013. "How Students, Faculty, and Institutions Can Fulfill the Promise of Capstones." Peer Review 15 (4). https://www.aacu.org/publications-research/periodicals/how-students-faculty-and-institutions-can-fulfill-promise.
This article offers a useful analysis of the capstone experience broadly, offering some recent historical context for capstones as well as recommendations for where they are headed today based on practice examples found across the United States. For American readers in particular, this analysis will offer some helpful comparisons to programs in a more familiar context. Unlike some of the heavier and formal research-centered pieces, another benefit of this article is its accessibility, due in large part because it serves to introduce a whole issue of Peer Review focused on capstone experiences. Paris and Ferren’s focus on the faculty-student relationship within capstones may be especially useful to readers, as it’s a lens of capstones not frequently seen in other literature and may be a key element in what makes capstones a high impact practice.
Park , Matthew, Paul Hansen, Guy Risko, and Joshua Walker. 2023. "Just a Few Minutes of Your Time: Using Qualitative Survey Data to Evaluate and Revise a Capstone Project at an Early College Network." In Cultivating Capstones: Designing High-Quality Culminating Experiences for Student Learning, edited by Caroline J Ketcham, Anthony G Weaver and Jessie L Moore, 125-136. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
The Bard Early College Network includes ten schools that, through dual-enrollment courses taught by faculty with terminal degrees, allow students to graduate with both a high school diploma and an associate’s degree simultaneously, tuition free. In their third and fourth years on a Bard Early College campus, students enroll in the Bard Seminar Sequence, a four-semester sequence of interdisciplinary courses that emphasize close reading, critical inquiry, and scholarly writing. During their fourth and final semester of Seminar, students complete a capstone project that culminates in a ten-page research-based essay and presentation. The Seminar capstone project serves two primary functions: it highlights and reinforces the academic skills that students have developed over several years, and it prepares them for the increasingly independent work that will be asked of them as they pursue bachelor’s degrees and careers. Students across the Bard Early College Network come from a multitude of educational backgrounds and bring a wide variety of interests and ambitions to the Seminar classroom.
While the BHSEC campuses are unique in that they employ a traditional college faculty in a public high school setting, the writing-as-a-process elements of the capstone research project would look familiar to instructors of first-year writing at any college or university. The thorniest capstone-related issues faced at the BHSECs, which include an academically diverse student body and the coordination of instructors from multiple departments located in multiple cities, makes this chapter especially relevant to institutions facing similar challenges.
Pearl, Andrew J, Joanna C Rankin, Moriah McSharry McGrath, Sarah Dyer, and Trina Jorre de St Jorre. 2023. "Students-As-Partners and Engaged Scholarship: Complementary Frameworks." In Cultivating Capstones: Designing High-Quality Culminating Experiences for Student Learning, edited by Caroline J Ketcham, Anthony G Weaver and Jessie L Moore, 137-148. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
Drawing on research with two cohorts of student co-researchers who studied capstones, this chapter offers a model to explore the complementary frameworks of students-as-partners and community-engaged scholarship. The authors explore how the principles of each framework might fulfill higher education’s tripartite missions of teaching, research, and service, and encourage full, democratic participation and civic involvement. Engaging with students-as-partners is a practice gaining momentum internationally (Mercer-Mapstone et al., 2017). In these partnerships, students and university staff collaborate and contribute to pedagogical and research projects in equal, but different ways (Cook-Sather et al., 2014) to facilitate more equitable, diverse, and inclusive educational opportunities (Rankin et al., 2020). As part of a larger research project on student diversity, identity, and capstone experiences, the authors engaged with students-as-partners in a research collaboration. While the inclusion of student co-researchers was not an initial part of the research project, it became evident as research progressed that a students-as-partners approach would allow the team to more thoroughly address the research questions.
Rash, Agnes, and Kathryn Weld. 2013. "The Capstone Course: Origins, Goals, Methods, and Issues." PRIMUS 23 (4): 291-96. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511970.2013.775203.
This is an introduction to a special issue on capstone courses, which describes a range of models, common goals across capstones, popular teaching methods used in capstones, the value of capstones as a way to assess a curricular program, and issues related to faculty development. The curricular focus, mathematics, is somewhat unique and so may be especially useful for instructors who come with a strong disciplinary connection and are unsure of how capstones may fit into or enhance the content they hope to impart on students. An interesting and also unique aspect of this piece is the acknowledgement of capstones’ value in program assessment. For administrators in particular, this may be a helpful argument for an added benefit of capstones beyond student learning directly associated with the course. This article, as with several others, is explicit in framing the teaching of capstones as more of a mentorship relationship–an idea that would be worth following up on in future research.
Rash, Agnes, and Kathryn Weld. 2013. "The capstone course: Origins, goals, methods, and issues." PRIMUS 23 (4): 291-296.
Redman, Peggy. 2013. "Going beyond the Requirement: The Capstone Experience." Peer Review 15 (4). https://www.aacu.org/publications-research/periodicals/going-beyond-requirement-capstone-experience.
This case study describes capstones across the curriculum and educational levels (bachelors, master’s, and doctoral) at the University of La Verne in southern California. By looking at the 127 capstone projects that students produced (41 undergraduate), Redman analyzed student writing and learning. As a result of the findings associated with this analysis, the university adapted a more integrated and reflective process across all four years to prepare students for their final capstone. This piece serves as a valuable model for thoughtfully embedding and scaffolding the capstone experience not only in the final year, but from a student’s first experience on campus. Additionally, the piece offers innovative ideas for linking capstones to other high impact practices such as community partnerships (service-learning) and ePortfolios.
Redman, Peggy. 2013. "Going beyond the requirement: The capstone experience." Peer Review 15 (4).
Reyes, Silvia, Nelson Nunez Rodriguez, and Sarah Brennan. 2023. "The Development of Capstone Assignments Using a Faculty Community of Practice Model." In Cultivating Capstones: Designing High-Quality Culminating Experiences for Student Learning, edited by Caroline J Ketcham , Anthony G Weaver and Jessie L Moore, 179-190. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
Hostos Community College created a multidisciplinary faculty development course-redesign seminar to craft capstone learning experiences rooted in varied faculty identities and dissimilar pedagogical expertise. We prioritized creating a safe, interdisciplinary, and collaborative environment that was rich with brainstorming, mentoring, and constructive feedback. Eight individual seminars ran for 15 weeks each involving groups of seven or less faculty between 2015 and 2019. Thirty-five faculty participated in redesigning twenty-two courses, using one of two models. This chapter focuses on the first model, a traditional model of individual faculty designing capstone assignments for specific courses in a structured workshop with bi-weekly meetings. The workshop involved developing the assignment, adjusting curriculum, teaching the course, and assessing the delivery and outcomes. This chapter provides a close look at the administrative structures designed to support faculty.
Richards, Cindy Koenig, Nicholas V Longo, and Caryn McTighe Musil. 2023. "Designing Democratic Spaces: Public-Facing Civic Capstone Courses." In Cultivating Capstones: Designing High-Quality Culminating Experiences for Student Learning, edited by Caroline J Ketcham, Anthony G Weaver and Jessie L Moore, 149-162. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
This chapter foregrounds a distinguishing feature embedded in the capstones designed at a diverse mix of colleges and universities: namely, a civic dimension. There is a great potential in capstones that are intentionally designed to foster democratic learning, civic agency, and public problem solving. The authors report results from a multi-year project demonstrating how various disciplines can share specific design features, including scaffolding learning experiences, that culminate in a civic capstone.
Two case studies—a Global Studies Capstone at Providence College and a Communication and Media Capstone at Willamette University—and models from public universities offer lessons for cultivating capstones and provide examples of “what works” to engage students in civic capstones. Through this multi-institutional perspective, the authors show how capstones in a variety of disciplines and institutions can develop civic competencies through collaborative learning, reflective practice, and publicly engaged research. They also outline the importance of engaging, deliberative pedagogy for educating future leaders in communities share and concrete assignments developed over years of practice.
Based on this scan and intensive experience with capstones, the authors introduce the concept of “civic professionalism,” which is a framework for incorporating civic engagement into capstones across various disciplines and essential for connecting capstone courses to broader institutional transformation. Capstone courses are ideal bridges between students, alumni, and community partners, and re-thinking professional identity is an important component of these courses. Ultimately, the core consequence of the design of civic capstones is their power to hone students’ skills in the habits of democratic engagement across differences, making questions of diversity, equity, and agency central. This power extends the impact of disciplinary capstones, increasing student learning in the discipline, while also giving students first-hand experience transforming knowledge into action to contribute to a more just and equitable society.
Upson-Saia, Kristi. 2013. "The Capstone Experience for the Religious Studies Major." Teaching Theology & Religion 16 (1): 3-17. https://doi.org/10.1111/teth.12001.
This study examines capstone experiences for religious studies majors at 29 different U.S. institutions. Upson-Saia not only explores the strengths across these experiences, and the factors that set apart especially successful programs, but also takes an explicit focus on “the most frustrating aspects of the capstone” and “how some departments avoid such frustrations” (4). Unlike Lee and Loton (2017), who found strong consensus among the top purposes of capstones, Upson-Saia found little consensus among religious studies capstones beyond “culmination” in their educational objectives. This may be a difference in scale–on a smaller scale, more variation is visible–or in context. Perhaps authors have similar ideas about what should be talked about in published articles, but in practice, there may be more variation in purpose. Interestingly, Upson-Saia discusses one of the themes Lee and Loton raised about the pressures put on the capstone: suggesting that frustrations about the capstone as not going well, or doing as much as it could, stem from those pressures for capstone to be doing everything. She takes a historical lens in her response to this, exploring the evolution of capstones and their purposes through history to think through how capstones may be positioned today. Her resulting list of best practices for religious studies capstones may be adapted across disciplinary contexts and offer a useful starting point for people designing and developing capstones.
Upson-Saia, Kristi. 2013. "The capstone experience for the religious studies major." Teaching Theology & Religion 16 (1): 3-17.
Vale, Julie, Karen Gordon, Russell Kirkscey, and Jennifer Hill. 2020. "Student and Faculty Perceptions of Capstone Purposes: What Can Engineering Learn From Other Disciplines?" Proceedings of the Canadian Engineering Education Association (CEEA) Conference 2020: 1-8. https://doi.org/10.24908/pceea.vi0.14149.
Van Zile-Tamsen, Carol , Janet Bean, Christina Beaudoin, David I Lewis, and Tania von der Heidt. 2023. "Where There's a Will, There's a Way: Implementing a Capstone Experience for General Education." In Cultivating Capstones: Designing High-Quality Culminating Experiences for Student Learning, edited by Caroline J Ketcham, Anthony G Weaver and Jessie L Moore, 73-82. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
In a sample of institutions from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, only 9.1% of institutions with universally required capstone experiences approached the capstone from a general education or core curriculum approach. The other 91.0% were either exclusively disciplinary or combined disciplinary knowledge with more general learning across various disciplines. This chapter provides a case study analysis of a universally required general education capstone at University of Buffalo in the United States.
This particular capstone requirement is unique because it is part of the general education program (not a disciplinary capstone) and implemented at a large, research-intensive public institution where a program of such scale is typically not expected. In addition, the signature work product is an integrative portfolio based on general education coursework. Drawing on document analysis and interviews, this chapter describes the context of the institution, the structure of the capstone experience, the drivers for and conception of this program, the detailed goals of this capstone experience, and the benefits and challenges of this general education capstone course.
von der Heidt, Tania, Carol Van Zile-Tamsen, David I. Lewis, Janet Bean, and Christina Beaudoin. 2023. "How Two Australian Universities Achieved "Capstones for All": A Change Management Perspective." In Cultivating Capstones: Designing High-Quality Culminating Experiences for Student Learning, edited by Caroline J. Ketcham , Anthony G. Weaver and Jessie L. Moore, 99-112. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
This chapter describes the evolution of the capstone requirement at the two Australian universities, which require all students to undertake a capstone experience in their undergraduate degree. Institutional leaders with knowledge of history and practice of capstones within each of the two Australian institutions committed to capstones were interviewed. Both universities are Melbourne-based: the top-ranked, Group of Eight (sandstone) University of Melbourne and the lower-ranked, innovative research-oriented La Trobe University. Our prompt was: “Tell me the story of capstones at your institution.”
Results explore why and how these institutions developed a strong commitment to capstones in curriculum. In this way, the chapter aims to deepen our understanding of how institutions manage the change process for introducing and sustaining capstones. Overall, these stories reveal the complex forces driving capstone change, implementation and perceived success. The insights provided offer lessons for whole-of-institution capstone design, implementation and maintenance.
Weiss, James M., Russell Kirkscey, and Julie Vale. 2021. "The Boston College Capstone Program: Formation and Function of a Holistic General Education Cumulative Experience ." The Journal of General Education 70 (1-2): 50-61. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/901191.
Participants from the 2018-2020 research seminar on Capstone Experiences profile Boston College’s Capstone Program.
Young, Dallin George, Tracy L Skipper, and Rico R Reed. 2023. "Institutional Considerations for Capstones on Campus: Perspectives Based on National Data on Senior Culminating Experiences." In Cultivating Capstones: Designing High-Quality Culminating Experiences for Student Learning, edited by Caroline J Ketcham , Anthony G Weaver and Jessie L Moore, 55-70. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
For institutions of higher education and the professionals that work in them, the senior year represents the final opportunity to prepare seniors to face the demands that lie ahead. Therefore, if institutions wish to capitalize on the opportunities and obligations to provide meaningful culminating experiences through senior capstones, their design and execution must be intentionally and integrally connected to undergraduate education. Interested stakeholders at colleges and universities are likely to find a multiplicity of forms diffused throughout their organizations, making this task fraught with challenges.
This chapter, based on the National Survey of Senior Capstone Experiences, highlights the various forms that capstone experiences takes on campuses across the United States. Then the chapter interrogates the national landscape, highlighting institutional concerns for the senior year.
Young, Dallin George, Jasmin K Chung, Dory E Hoffman, and Ryan Bronkema. 2017. 2016 National Survey of Senior Capstone Experiences: Expanding our Understanding of Culminating Experiences. Columbia, SC: National Resource Center for the First-Year Experience and Students in Transition.
This publication reports on the 2016 National Survey of Senior Capstone Experiences conducted by the National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition. The survey previously was administered in 1999 and 2011. It reports on capstones in curricular and co-curricular higher education programs, including objectives for the capstone experiences, types of capstone by field of study, and percentage of seniors participating in capstones.
Adie, Lenore, Fabienne van der Kleij, and Joy Cumming. 2018. "The Development and Application of Coding Frameworks to Explore Dialogic Feedback Interactions and Self-regulated Learning." British Educational Research Journal 44 (4): 704-723. https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3463.
This article discusses the importance of dissecting feedback and the student’s interaction with such to determine the benefit provided by specific feedback tools. The authors first establish the importance of conversational feedback, in which students can both understand and reject, if necessary, the feedback offered by their teacher. Such a technique should offer students a semblance of classroom agency, which encourages a partnership between teachers and their students so there exists reciprocity of feedback. The authors then goes on to note that a spectrum of feedback exists (12 types), which should be judiciously used in both evaluative and descriptive manners to evoke the most meaningful conversations from their student body. In varying subjects—which this article displays by offering evidence from STEM, English, and athletic perspectives—students tended to offer different responses after question prompting offered by the teacher. This is, in part, due to the dispositions of the students engaging with the feedback, but those in STEM were noted to respond with fewer words rather than with a dialog. English Studies students, on the other hand, were quicker to note areas of improvement within their work, thus allowing a dialog to flow between teacher the student. Due to the importance of this dialogic element, the authors conclude with the recommendation that feedback typologies cannot be fixed and thus should follow the idiosyncrasies that conversations oftentimes offer.
Annotation contributed by Christina Wyatt, 2021-2023 CEL Student Scholar
Akinla, Olawunmi, Pamela Hagan, and William Atiomo. 2018. "A Systematic Review of the Literature Describing the Outcomes of Near-Peer Mentoring Programs for First Year Medical Students." BMC Medical Education 18 (1): 98. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-018-1195-1.
The objective of this paper was to review literature about near-peer mentoring programs for first-year medical students. “A near-peer is one who is one or more years senior to another on the same level of education training, that is, learners providing pastoral support to other learners in contrast to faculty staff mentoring learners” (2) Across the five papers in the review, three outcomes were summarized: personal and professional development, transitioning and stress reduction. For personal and professional development, 72.5% mentees reported much improvement working on a team; 61.2% reported greater respect towards themselves and mentors; 58% said they were more accountable about schoolwork; and 100% said they improved their “professionalism” skills. For transitioning, some of the studies showed support that mentoring programs helped in the transition phase of medical school. For stress reduction, some studies showed near-peer mentoring programs helped build resilience and be less stressed.
Annotation by Eric Hall
Alcocer, Luis F., and Andres Martinez. 2018. "Mentoring Hispanic Students: A Literature Review." Journal of Hispanic Higher Education 17 (4): 393-401. https://doi.org/10.1177/1538192717705700.
This literature review reviews the topics of mentoring and peer mentoring in higher education. It then expands to the mentoring of Hispanic students. “As established by Zachary (2012), mentoring is a process of engagement, no one can mentor without connection, and the relationships is more successful when it is done collaboratively. Mentoring provides the mentee with a safe situation to explore new ideas with confidence” (398). The concept of empathy is briefly discussed, and this might be useful to think about related to training and development of mentoring programs. The importance of understanding culture and values of population was discussed.
Booker, Keonya, and Ernest Brevard Jr.. 2017. "Why Mentoring Matters: African-American Students and the Transition to College." The Mentor: An Academic Advising Journal 19. https://doi.org/10.26209/mj1961245.
This was an empirical study of a mentoring program for first-year African-American students. The mentors in this study included students (32%), faculty members (28%) and staff members (40%). The overall findings were that the students was beneficial for their transition to college. The main topics discussed were academic concerns, personal concerns, and career guidance. Despite the overall program being successful, a majority of the mentees that were mentored by peers reported a less favorable experience. Students in these relationships reported issues of availability, community, and personality conflicts. Once again, the idea of mentor training was highlighted as important for the creation and success of these programs.
Annotation by Eric Hall
Brundiers, Katja, Arnim Wiek, and Charles L. Redman. 2010. "Real‐world Learning Opportunities in Sustainability: From Classroom into the Real World." International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education 11 (4): 308-324.
Brundiers et al. look at sustainability education and how it can be supported by real world experiences, including project-based learning, service learning, and internships. Giving students real world experiences helps their acquisition of goals related to the sustainability education they are receiving. From collaborative work to and problem-solving skills, these real-world experiences contributed to the student’s sustainability education. This article also highlighted how real-world experiences play into the curriculum and then how the skills they are supposed to be acquiring fit into the progression. This article served as a case study for what implementation of real-world experiences may look like, and how they can be fit into the curriculum on a wider scale.
Annotation contributed by Ellery Ewell, 2021-2023 CEL Student Scholar
Collings, R., V. Swanson, and R. Watkins. 2014. "The Impact of Peer Mentoring on Levels of Student Wellbeing, Integration and Retention: A Controlled Comparative Evaluation of Residential Students in UK Higher Education." Higher Education 68 (6): 927-42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-014-9752-y.
This research took place at two matched universities in the UK from which 109 first year undergraduates were recruited. All participants took a series of questionnaires during the first week and 10 weeks into the semester. Peer mentoring happened at one of the institutions. Measures included: perceived stress, adaptation to university life, intention to leave (all time 2); and social support, negative affect and self-esteem (time points 1 and 2). “Peer mentored individuals showed higher levels of integration to university. Four times as many non-peer mentored students had seriously considered leaving university compared to peer mentored students. Integration partially mediated the relationship between mentoring and intention to stay at university. Moderating effects analyses indicate that mentoring may buffer the effect of the transition to University.” (928) Tinto’s theory of student retention was used to explain the results.
Colvin, Janet W., and Marinda Ashman. 2010. "Roles, Risks, and Benefits of Peer Mentoring Relationships in Higher Education." Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning 18 (2): 121-34. https://doi.org/10.1080/13611261003678879.
This article examined a “mentor leadership program under the premise of students helping students.” (122) Interviews were conducted of 40 participants which included current mentors (n = 12), new mentors (n = 8), instructors (n = 10) and students in class (n = 10). From the interviews, three themes emerged: 1) roles, 2) benefits and risks, and 3) power and resistance. For roles, five specific roles were identified: 1) connecting link; 2) peer leader; 3) learning coach; 4) student advocate; and 5) trusted friend. Three benefits were identified: 1) being able to support students; 2) reapplying concepts in their own lives; and 3) developing connections. There were some gender differences a swell with women seeing benefits in relationships and men in academics. Some of the risks and challenges of mentoring included: balancing mentor role with time and other commitments, making themselves vulnerable to students, getting emotionally attached to students and having to “let go” at the end of semester. There were a few issues of power and resistance, but fewer than the benefits recognized. The issue of resistance resonated around amount of time and pestering from the mentors.
Cooper, Katelyn M., Brian Haney, Anna Krieg, and Sara E. Brownell. 2017. "What’s in a Name? The Importance of Students Perceiving That an Instructor Knows Their Names in a High-Enrollment Biology Classroom." CBE—Life Sciences Education 16 (1): ar8. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.16-08-0265.
Cooper et al. have been cited in several recent publications about fostering relationships in college. The authors suggest that using nameplates to facilitate addressing students by name leads to relationship gains, even if faculty wouldn’t otherwise remember students’ names. Cooper et al. studied a high-enrollment biology class in which instructors used active-learning strategies and asked students to use name tents – folded card stock on which students wrote their names. At the end of the semester, the instructors could name approximately half of their students when looking at a deidentified photo roster, but 78% of the students surveyed thought the instructors knew their names (5). Moreover 23% of the students indicated that instructors knowing their names contributed to student-instructor relationships (7).
Annotation contributed by Dr. Buffie Longmire-Avital
Costa, Christina Naegeli, and Lauren Christine Mims. 2021. "Using Notecard Check-Ins to Build Relationships and Establish a Climate of Care." College Teaching 69 (1): 32-33. https://doi.org/10.1080/87567555.2020.1797619.
Costa and Mims describe using notecards to check-in with students at the beginning or end of class as a way to build rapport. In this “Quick Fix” article, they describe distributing index cards to their students periodically during the semester. They ask students to respond to questions about their stress level, self-care plans, or recent good news, and the instructors respond either individually or with synthesized responses to the class. Costa and Mims write, “Setting aside five minutes during class has allowed us to quickly and easily learn (1) what is currently causing distress, (2) the good and the bad things that are going on in students’ lives, and (3) whether students are utilizing resources on campus that they might need. As a result, notecard check-ins have fostered a greater sense of connection between us and our students” (33).
D'Abate, Caroline P. 2009. "Defining Mentoring in the First-Year Experience: One Institution’s Approach to Clarifying the Meaning of Mentoring First-Year Students." Journal of The First-Year Experience & Students in Transition 21 (1): 65-91.
The authors are calling this a case study which is examining the functions of mentoring in both faculty and peer mentors who participated in a first-year experience program. “The respondents tended to agree that mentoring includes providing feedback, teaching, sharing information, directing, academic goal setting, advising, encouraging, aiding, academic goal tracking, modeling, problem solving, introducing, and observing. However, they did not agree on whether mentoring includes socializing, affirming, confidence building, providing practical application, helping on assignments, calming, collaborating, advocating, personal goal setting, personal goal tracking, befriending, sheltering, or supporting.” (73) “Table 3 also illustrates that faculty and peer mentors agree there are functions that should be reserved for peer mentors, including helping on assignments, affirming, and socializing. Faculty respondents reported that it is the peer mentor’s role, not their role, to befriend and support students. On the other hand, peer mentors are unsure if it is their role to befriend and support students. Finally, findings from this study suggest there are several mentoring functions that peer and faculty mentors believe are not appropriate for an FYE program, including collaborating, personal goal setting and tracking, providing practical application, calming, confidence building, advocating, and sheltering.” (83) At the end in the implication for practice section, the authors discuss the importance of clarifying the role of the mentor to improve mentor training.
deBie, Alise. 2020. "Respectfully Distrusting ‘Students as Partners’ Practice in Higher Education: Applying a Mad Politics of Partnership." Teaching in Higher Eduction. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2020.1736023.
Alise de Bie provides an interesting editorial explaining Mad(ness) Studies – “an area of scholarship and pedagogy establishing roots in the academy, has emerged as a result of this activism and is principally inspired by and concerned with Mad people’s ways of knowing, being and doing (Menzies, LeFrancois, and Reaume 2013; Reville 2013)” (2). Her inclusion of Mad people includes: “(service) users, (psychiatric) survivors, consumers, patients, disabled, Mad (for an overview see Reaume ; Speed )” (2). The four main themes include: 1) equality; 2) interpersonal concord and consensus; 3) mutual collaboration; and 4) inclusion. The article brings up many excellent points about how certain voices may be valued more in Students as Partners practices and that conflict may be fine – everything does not have to be okay.
Douglas, Lesley, Debra Jackson, Cindy Woods, and Kim Usher. 2018. "Reported Outcomes for Young People Who Mentor Their Peers: A Literature Review." Mental Health Practice 21 (9): 35-45. https://doi.org/10.7748/mhp.2018.e1328.
This was a systematic literature that identified 9 studies from 2006-2016 which focused on outcomes of the mentors. They were interested in mentors between 14-25 years. “Peer-to-peer mentoring was defined as a reciprocal relationship where peers of similar age and experiences (mentor) share their knowledge, skills and experiences with their peers (mentees) and provide support in a formal mentoring programme to foster positive growth and development.” (37) Interestingly, the attempted to classify the mentor training involved and ongoing adult support; these are often not discussed as much in this literature. The four important outcomes highlighted were: personal growth (changed perception of identity); psychosocial well-being (e.g., enhanced leadership skills); universality of the shared experience (connection with mentees); and mentor experiences (feel they could make a difference).
Egege, Sandra, and Salah Kutieleh. 2015. "Peer Mentors as a Transition Strategy at University: Why Mentoring Needs to Have Boundaries." Australian Journal of Education 59 (3): 265-77. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004944115604697.
This is a review of previous literature reviews around peer mentoring as “peer mentoring is often considered the single most effective strategy for increasing student retention and student satisfaction.” (abstract, 265). The role of the peer mentor is often seen as having multiple functions—academic advisor, confidante, friend, study buddy, career advisor, support, and role model. The article highlights the issues with defining mentoring and the importance of “setting the boundary conditions” for mentoring (272). For this paper, they write “mentoring programs had specified function, as did the mentor – to encourage student engagement and their sense of belonging the university.” (272-273). A major conclusion from the paper was that there appears to be no best/standard practice for mentoring, but diversity does matter in these relationships.
Evans, Karen, David Guile, Judy Harris, and Helen Allan. 2010. "Putting Knowledge to Work: A New Approach." Nurse Education Today 30 (3): 245-251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2009.10.014.
This article examines the process of connecting theory to practice and outlines a “new approach” to formulating these connections. Allan et al. utilize nursing education as a case study to frame their approach. The main tenet of their approach is re-contextualization; knowledge learned in one context has to be recontextualized to in different ways that utilize that knowledge. The framework of recontextualization overcomes the theory to practice gap that they saw in nursing education. They also examine some of the implementations in terms of how it plays into building curricula. They discuss gradual release, which is reflective of how curricula are scaffolded, building on base knowledge and skill as learners move through their education. The principle of gradual release is integral to building connections to broader contexts and the principles of recontextualization will help us how to increase these connections to broader contexts.
Gunn, Frances, Seung Hwan (Mark) Lee, and Madelyn Steed. 2017. "Student Perceptions of Benefits and Challenges of Peer Mentoring Programs: Divergent Perspectives From Mentors and Mentees." Marketing Education Review 27 (1): 15-26. https://doi.org/10.1080/10528008.2016.1255560.
This research study examined the benefits of both mentors and mentees in peer mentoring program. The participants were 107 first-year business students (mentees) and 16, 4th year mentors. The goals of the mentoring program were to help first-years students adjust to the university and for the 4th year student to get leadership experience. The mentoring model used in this program was based on the four domains identified by Crisp and Cruz (2009): psychological and emotional support; goal setting and career path; academic subject knowledge support; and the existence of a role model. Mentees regard identified the acquisition of subject knowledge and support as the most beneficial aspect of the mentoring program, as well as the biggest challenge. The mentors reported being a role model the most beneficial aspect of the mentoring experience, but also the most challenging. The findings of this study need to be taken in light of the mentoring program being within a departmental context and what the goals were for the mentors and mentees.
Holt, Laura J, and James E Fifer. 2018. "Peer Mentor Characteristics That Predict Supportive Relationships With First-Year Students: Implications for Peer Mentor Programming and First-Year Student Retention." Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice 20 (1): 67-91. https://doi.org/10.1177/1521025116650685.
This is an empirical study that examined mentor’s attachment style and self-efficacy and mentor-provided support. “Results showed that mentor self-efficacy mediated the relation between an avoidant attachment style and mentor-reported support; that is, peer mentors with a more avoidant attachment style reported lower self-efficacy to mentor and, in turn, endorsed providing lower levels of support for mentees” (67). Mentor–mentee contact; however, was the only predictor of mentees’ ratings of mentor support. “Potential peer mentors should feel comfortable (a) assisting students with academic, social, and personal challenges, (b) serving as a role model, (c) discussing their own academic and social experiences and challenges, (d) connecting students to campus resources, and (e) helping mentees to develop academic skills that allow them to function more autonomously in college” (85).
Hurtado, Sylvia, Cynthia L. Alverez, Chelsea Guillermo-Wann, Marcela Cuellar, and Lucy Arellano. 2012. "A Model for Diverse Learning Environments." In Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research, vol 27, edited by John C. Smart and Michael B. Paulsen, 41-122. Springer.
The authors give an overview of their comprehensive Multi-Contextual Model for Diverse Learning Environments (DLE). The overarching purpose of their model, which centers the experiences of historically underrepresented minorities (HURMS), is to acknowledge three main points: (1) Multiple nested contexts continuously and dynamically intersect, while providing spheres of influence for individuals who occupy space within the university. (2) Students, faculty, and staff are agents of change who have the power to generate movements of campus climate change. Lastly, (3) the goal or outcome of an institution is the creation of persons who continuously seek out opportunities to learn and are not only competent in a multicultural world but active citizens that will contribute to “our collective social and economic success.” This chapter is critical to understanding the context relationships are developing within.
Lane, Stephanie R. 2018. "Addressing the Stressful First Year in College: Could Peer Mentoring Be a Critical Strategy?" Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice 22 (3): 481-496. https://doi.org/10.1177/1521025118773319.
The author uses an integrative literature review process to examine peer mentoring within first year programs. The author found seven articles which they reviewed. From this review, four issues emerged: 1) lack of a consistent peer mentoring definition; 2) theoretical and methodological issues of concern, 3) unexpected findings that impact program results, and 4) international comparisons. (9) The author suggests, “Tinto’s (1975) integration and social support framework appears to be most appropriate for assessing peer mentoring on retention as it relates to social and academic integration into college” (12).
Mullen, Carol A, and Cindy C Klimaitis. 2021. "Defining Mentoring: A Literature Review of Issues, Types, and Applications." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1483 (1): 19-35. https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14176.
This literature review discussed how some of the traditional definitions of mentoring may be falling out of favor. In traditional definitions of mentoring the career function may have carried more weight, but in more recently the psychosocial aspects of mentoring are becoming more prominent. To show this diversity in thinking, the authors describe nine mentoring alternatives or types: formal; informal; diverse; electronic; comentoring/collaborative; group; peer; multilevel; and cultural mentoring. Throughout the discussion of different mentoring options, it seems that issues related to DEI are present, as well as the recognition that development is not one-way, “mentees and mentors alike are learner, comentor, and change agent” (32).
O'Shea, Sarah, Sue Bennett, and Janine Delahunty. 2017. "Engaging ‘Students as Partners’ in the Design and Development of a Peer-Mentoring Program." Student Success 8 (2): 113-16. https://doi.org/10.5204/ssj.v8i2.390.
This is a short article based on a presentation about developing peer-mentoring programs with a students-as-partners approach. While the article didn’t talk much about the content of the presentation, there was one question that they posed that is noteworthy to consider when designing: “Who better to expose the implicit or hidden curriculum of university than those who are already on that journey?” (114)
Plaskett, Sean, Diksha Bali, Michael J. Nakkula, and John Harris. 2018. "Peer Mentoring to Support First-Generation Low-Income College Students." Phi Delta Kappan 99 (7): 47-51. https://doi.org/10.1177/0031721718767861.
This was an article written for a more general audience and was based on a previous study done by the participants and tried to provide practical implications for the reader. “Indeed, we found that the best matches integrated these two factors, in an approach we call relational instrumentality. That is, the incoming students were most successful when their mentors didn’t just help them meet their immediate needs but also bonded with them personally” (48). “Effective mentors build trusting relationships with their mentees and adopt mentee-centric, respectful approaches. This begins with establishing the right kind of match, but it also includes ensuring that the pairs share a strong commitment to the match and engage in activities that promote relational instrumentality” (50). From this they discuss four strategies to help with this: 1) building relationally instrumental matches; 2) fostering trust, 3) mentee-centric mentoring and 4) committing to the process.
Pon-Barry, Heather, Audrey St. John, Becky Wai-Ling Packard, and Barbara Rotundo. 2019. "A Flexible Curriculum for Promoting Inclusion through Peer Mentorship." In Proceedings of the 50th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education - SIGCSE ’19, 116-22. Minneapolis, MN: ACM Press.
This chapter described the Megas and Gigas Educate (MaGE) Training curriculum which “focuses on inclusion as a key tool for creating a welcoming environment that fosters a community of learning”(1116). This program was created for training of computer science peer mentors. The four core modules include: learning processes (e.g., active learning); motivational factors (e.g., self-efficacy and growth mindset); effective feedback and emotional intelligence; and inclusiveness and climate (1117). Preliminary data shows that teaching self-efficacy of mentors increased following implementation of the program. Interviews of 20 mentors showed effectiveness of the program. For the learners, the program showed improved retention of those in future computer science courses.
Ryan, Gina. 2021. "Start with What's Going Well: A Guided Reflection on our Feedback Practices in the Classroom." The Canadian Music Educator 62 (2): 7-12.
Ryan explores formative and summative feedback styles alongside the importance of language to implore further discussion on the matter. Ryan begins by delineating the importance of emphasizing formative and summative feedback to students, which involves the assessment of learning prior to and after assessments. While formative assessments can take the shape of peer-to-peer feedback as well as self-feedback, a summative assessment would typically take the form of an exam. Ryan then further delves into the nuance that comes with self and peer-to-peer feedback to highlight the importance of student agency. She mentions establishing class norms to create a sense of trust in her students before implementing a critique system, as oftentimes individuals, especially musicians, tend to take criticism as a personal offense rather than a performance growth opportunity. She mentioned highlighting what went well in a performance prior to discussion of what could have been improved and, to improve the quality of discussion in a peer setting, using a word-bank system to highlight important vocabulary that offers intrinsic growth opportunity. Lastly, Ryan discusses how feedback can come in many shapes and forms beyond verbal as different learning styles oftentimes require differences in feedback approach.
Ryan, Mary. 2013. "The pedagogical balancing act: teaching reflection in higher education." Teaching in Higher Education 18 (2): 144-155. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2012.694104.
Ryan identifies reflection as a process that should be taught. This article shares analysis of a project that collected data across different university courses in Education, Health, Business, Law and Creative Industries in one Australian university. Ryan uses Bain et al.’s (2002) terminology of the 5 Rs – reporting, responding, relating, reasoning, and reconstructing – to sort her data. However, she slims it down to 4 R’s by combining “reporting” and “responding.” The four resulting categories consist of: reporting and responding, relating, reasoning, and reconstructing. These are ordered from the most basic level of reflection to the highest level of reflection. Ryan’s larger project involves semi-structured interviews and focus groups with 40 volunteer staff and 40 volunteer students from across university faculties, along with samples of reflective work from 60 participating students across faculties. Based on her analysis, Ryan explores why reflection is critical to learning and to application of knowledge.
Seery, Christina, Andrea Andres, Niamh Moore-Cherry, and Sara O'Sullivan. 2021. "Students as Partners in Peer Mentoring: Expectations, Experiences and Emotions." Innovative Higher Education 46: 663–681. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10755-021-09556-8.
This research article discussed a peer mentoring program that was an orientation to Social Sciences program with the primary goal to develop social networks at the University College Dublin. This program mentors about 500 students with 66 peer mentors. In this study, peer mentors helped design and deliver the program and then some served as co-researchers. Three themes were identified for the mentors. First, peer mentors built relationships amongst students as well as university staff; the latter suggesting that the partnership approach worked. Second, there was a disconnect in expectations and experience of the program. Mentors expected to have more of an altruistic benefit for the mentees, but felt that much of their role was pragmatic helping navigate the university and less relational. Finally, as a result of not having the relational experience they expected, mentors experienced disappointment and feelings of rejection.
Simmons, Denise R., and Julie P. Martin. 2014. "Developing Effective Engineering Fictive Kin to Support Undergraduate First-Generation College Students." Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering 20 (3): 279-292. http://doi.org/10.1615/JWomenMinorScienEng.2014010979.
The use of fictive kin by African American communities is a longstanding practice. Beyond extended families, fictive kin are relationships elevated to the status of familial and have been effective in creating nuanced support networks, and tangible social capital for historically underrepresented minority groups (HURM). The authors find that first-generation students who create a network of fictive kinships across peers, faculty, student life, and administrators associate their persistence, self-efficacy, sense of belonging and perceived inclusion with the engagement in these relationships. Relationship building should consider the effectiveness of a fictive kinship models and approaches.
Svanes, Ingvill Krogstad, and Kaare Skagen. 2017. "Connecting Feedback, Classroom Research and Didaktik Perspectives." Journal of Curriculum Studies 49 (3): 334-351. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220272.2016.1140810.
Svanes and Skagen discuss benefits that Didaktik, feedback research, and classroom research could garner if used in tandem with each other. Didaktik is a Swedish tradition that underlines the importance of a teacher’s professional autonomy alongside the importance of creating feedback that matches with the subject matter and the pupils involved. Svanes and Skagen go on to argue that a focus on language-based intentionality is too narrow of a lens to fully understand what is happening in the classroom. Didaktik instead focuses on what qualities the teacher uses when giving feedback. To further this idea, its mentioned that a student’s learning is subject to the presentation of the teacher, thus the outcome of such cannot be fixed in advance. This means that students may not understand what the teacher attempts to convey, which can sometimes boil down to classroom context. The authors provide an extended example, focused on guided reading.
van der Kleij, Fabienne, and Lenore Adie. 2020. "Towards Effective Feedback: an Investigation of Teachers’ and Students’ Perceptions of Oral Feedback in Classroom Practice." Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy, & Practice 27 (3): 252-270. https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594x.2020.1748871.
In this piece, the effectiveness of feedback strategies are tested to determine what styles of feedback genuinely provide the most support to students. The journal article begins by discussing the merit of using explanations in place of simple corrective feedback in a timely manner to the interception of the issue. Alongside this concept, it was recommended that teachers profile their students to determine how one might go about receiving, perceiving, interpreting, and understanding the information presented to them. Such is important given that feedback is only as powerful as a student’s perception of it, in which case students oftentimes refuse to utilize the feedback received. To offer a unique perspective away from surveys, this journal used oral classroom feedback alongside video-stimulated recall to gather perceptions of feedback within one-on-one conversations to provide a time for reflection and correction. The results concluded that 30% of teacher feedback is not recognized by students, and further that around 30% of the feedback recognized was interpreted as per the teacher’s intention.
Annotation contributed by Christina Wyatt, 2021-2023 CEL Student Scholar
Zeeb, Helene, Felicitas Biwer, Georg Brunner, Timo Leuders, and Alexander Renkl. 2019. "Make it Relevant! How Prior Instructions Foster the Integration of Teacher Knowledge." Instructional Science 47 (6): 711-739. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-019-09497-y.
This piece explores how helpful it may be to have prior knowledge in academic situations. Specifically, the authors researched pre-service music teachers and their performance relative to whether they received related instruction prior to a lecture or not. The findings show that relevant instruction produced higher performance during the lecture. Having the ability to integrate prior learning and experience is deemed to be extremely beneficial in this situation. Not only is prior knowledge important, but the knowledge structures the teachers have in their brains are vital to the retrieval of information while in the classroom (p. 713).
Annotation contributed by Sophie Miller, 2021 CEL Student Scholar
Bloch-Shulman, Stephen, Maggie Castor, and Jessie L Moore. 2012. "Exploring Radical Research." International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, October 2012.
Bloch-Schulman, Stephen , Elizabeth Minnich, Ed Whitfield, Desirae Simmons, Wesley Morris, Michele Leaman, Spoma Jovanovic, Kathleen Edwards, and Maggie Castor. 2012. "Teaching Democratic Thinking." Presentation at Association of American Colleges and Universities Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., January 2012.
Bloch-Schulman, Stephen, and . 2010. "When the ‘Best Hope’ Is Not So Hopeful, What Then?" 24 (4): 399–415.
Bloch-Schulman, Stephen, Patricia Rogers, and maggie castor. "Partnerships: A Journal of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement." 6 (1).
Bloch-Schulman, Stephen, Elizabeth Minnich, Donna Engelmann, Mark Cubberley, and Ed Whitfield. 2010. "Teaching Democratic Thinking." Association of American Colleges and Universities Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., January 2010.
Bloch-Schulman, Stephen, J. F. Humphrey, Spoma Jovanovic, Hollyce “Sherry” Giles, Dan Malotky, and Audrey Campbell. 2015. "What Kind of Community? An Inquiry into Teaching Practices that Move beyond Exclusion." Partnerships: A Journal of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement 6 (1): 25-50.
Bloch-Schulman, Stephen, Donna Engelmann, and maggie castor. 2010. "Teaching Democratic Thinking." American Association of Philosophy Teachers Biennial Conference, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, August 2010.
Bloch-Schulman, Stephen, and maggie castor. 2015. "I Am Not Trying to Be Defiant, I Am Trying to Be Your Partner: How to Help Students Navigate Educational Institutions That Do Not Value Democratic Practice." Partnerships: A Journal of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement 6 (1): 161-180.
Bloch-Shulman, Stephen, J. F. Humphrey, Spoma Jovanovic, and Hollyce Giles. 2015. "What Kind of Community? An Inquiry into Teaching Practices that Move beyond Exclusion." Partnerships: A Journal of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement 6 (1): 25-50.
Bloch-Shulman, Stephen, Maggie Castor, and Jessie L. Moore. 2011. "Exploring Radical Research." Presentation at International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Milwaukee, WI 2011.
Bloch-Shulman, Stephen, Elizabeth Minnich, Ed Whitfield, Desirae Simmons, Wesley Morris, Michele Leaman, Spoma Jovanovic, Kathleen Edwards, and Maggie Castor. 2012. "Teaching Democratic Thinking." Presentation at Association of American Colleges and Universities Annual Meeting, Washington, DC 2012.
Bloch-Shulman, Stephen. 2010. "When the ‘Best Hope’ Is Not So Hopeful, What Then?: Democratic Thinking, Democratic Pedagogies, and Higher Education." The Journal of Speculative Philosophy 24 (4): 399–415.
Bloch-Shulman, Stephen, Elizabeth Minnich, Donna Engelmann, Mark Cubberley, and Ed Whitfield. 2010. "Teaching Democratic Thinking." Presentation at Association of American Colleges and Universities Annual Meeting, Washington, DC 2010.
Bloch-Shulman, Stephen, Donna Engelmann, and Maggie Castor. 2010. "Teaching Democratic Thinking." Presentation at American Association of Philosophy Teachers Biennial Conference, Myrtle Beach, SC 2010.
Bloch-Shulman, Stephen, and Maggie Castor. 2015. "I Am Not Trying to Be Defiant, I Am Trying to Be Your Partner: How to Help Students Navigate Educational Institutions That Do Not Value Democratic Practice." Partnerships: A Journal of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement 6 (1): 161-180.
Bringle, Robert, Patti Clayton, and Kathryn E. Bringle. 2015. "From Teaching Democratic Thinking to Developing Democratic Civic Identity." Partnerships: A Journal of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement 6 (1): 51-76.
Bringle, Robert, Patti Clayton, and Kathryn E Bringle. 2015. "From Teaching Democratic Thinking to Developing Democratic Civic Identity." Partnerships: A Journal of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement 6 (1): 51-76.
Jovanovic, Spoma, Mark Congdon Jr, Crawford Miller, and Garrett Richardson. 2015. "Rooting the Study of Communication Activism in an Attempted Book Ban." Partnerships: A Journal of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement 6 (1): 115-135.
Moore, Jessie L. 2013. "Preparing Advocates: Service-Learning in TESOL for Future Mainstream Educators." TESOL Journal 4 (3). https://doi.org/10.1002/tesj.97.
Moore, Jessie L. 2013. "Preparing Advocates: Service-Learning in TESOL for Future Mainstream Educators." TESOL Journal 4 (3): 555-570.
Price, Christopher, Yael Harlap, Lorriane Gutierrez, and Elizabeth Meier. 2012. "The scholarship of teaching democratic thinking and facilitating diversity learning." Presentation at International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Hamilton, Ontario 2012.
Price, Christopher, Yael Harlap, Lorriane Gutierrez, and Elizabeth Meier. 2012. "The scholarship of teaching democratic thinking and facilitating diversity learning." International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Hamilton, Ontario, October 2012.
Book, Connie Ledoux, and Jeffrey P Stein. 2023. "Designing a Residential Campus: Faculty Leadership in Developing Strategy, Vision, Partnerships, and Learning." In The Faculty Factor Developing Faculty Engagement with Living-Learning Communities, edited by Jennifer E Eidum and Lara L Lomicka, 71-87. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
Although this chapter tells the story of designing and implementing a university-wide Residential Campus Initiative at Elon University, it also provides suggestions for faculty, administrators, and student affairs professionals looking to expand existing LLC programs or design new LLC initiatives. Specifically, the authors offer suggestions for how faculty can provide leadership (through collaborative partnerships with student affairs staff and administrators) to assist their campuses in developing their own distinctive mix of residential experiences and programs led by a layered cadre of talented faculty and staff working strategically to engage students to develop socially, intellectually, and interpersonally.
Dahl, Laura S, Ethan Youngerman, Christopher J Stipeck, and Matthew J Mayhew. Laura S. Dahl, Ethan Youngerman, Christopher J. Stipeck, and Matthew J. Mayhew. "Elevating Equity in LLCs: Faculty Strategies for Engaging "New Majority" Students." In The Faculty Factor Developing Faculty Engagement with Living-Learning Communities, edited by Jennifer E Eidum and Lara Lomicka, Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
College-going student demographics are shifting. This chapter outlines new directions for faculty-student engagement initiatives in LLCs that support non-white, first gen, transfer, older students, and veterans. Authors use data from the Assessment of Collegiate Residential Environments and Outcomes (ACREO), a multi-institutional study of residential experiences and programs, to illustrate how the literature has played out practically at three universities.
Dahl, Laura S, Ethan Youngerman, Christopher J Stipeck, and Matthew J Mayhew. 2023. "Elevating Equity in LLCs: Faculty Strategies for Engaging "New Majority" Students." In The Faculty Factor Developing Faculty Engagement with Living-Learning Communities, edited by Jennifer E Eidum and Lara Lomicka, 19-33. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
Erck, Ryan W, Leia Duncan, and Terri Garrett. 2023. "Starting with a Shared Approach: Fostering Student Affairs–Academic Affairs Collaboration in LLCs." In The Faculty Factor Developing Faculty Engagement with Living-Learning Communities, edited by Jennifer E Eidum and Laura L Lomicka, 93-109. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
This chapter offers the foundational steps of collaboration for the success and longevity of LLCs. A model of shared vision, resources, and oversight between student affairs and academic affairs highlights practical approaches for partnering for the future. Collaboration on LLCs can be challenging but when approached as a truly shared experience, it can be invigorating, inspiring, and remind those in higher education of how our passion for serving students began.
Grabsch, Dustin K, Jennifer E Eidum, James C Penven, and Jennifer B Post. 2023. "Who? What? Where? Why? Understanding Faculty-in-Residence Programs." In The Faculty Factor Developing Faculty Engagement with Living-Learning Communities, edited by Jennifer E Eidum and Lara L Lomicka, 185-200. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
This chapter provides an overview of Faculty-in-Residence programs, including demographics, FIR program structures, and the benefits to FIR, to students, and to the institution. Authors focus specifically on these FIR faculty, and the contributions and challenges of FIR programs to present the who, what, and where of FIR programs, which show us the why underscoring the increasing popularity of FIR programs in the United States, with data gleaned from a nationwide survey of FIRs themselves, as well as current statistics on FIR programs.
Jessup-Anger , Jody E, and Mimi Benjamin. 2023. "Fostering Faculty-Student Engagement in LLCs." In The Faculty Factor Developing Faculty Engagement with Living-Learning Communities, edited by Jennifer E Eidum and Lara L Lomicka, 164-179. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
Living-learning communities offer a unique structure for faculty to engage with students in novel ways. In this chapter, the authors provide an overview of current research on faculty and student engagement in LLCs, offer a framework for considering how faculty might shape their engagement with students, and advance strategies for developing capacity for faculty-student interaction. In closing, the chapter offers ways to assess meaningful interactions between faculty and students.
Krieger, Carl . 2023. "Laying the Foundation for a Living-Learning Community: Building Strong Faculty-Residential Life Partnerships." In The Faculty Factor Developing Faculty Engagement with Living-Learning Communities, edited by Jennifer E Eidum and Lara L Lomicka, 112-126. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
Intended as a how-to guide for faculty and their residence life counterparts as they work together, this chapter offers opportunities to define their roles separately and create spaces for collaboration. This chapter begins by exploring the professional roles and context of faculty and residential life professionals outside of their partnership within LLCs. In addition, the chapter guides readers through key challenges to lay the groundwork for productive relationships with open communication and sets up collaboration models that faculty and RL partners might consider for their specific relationship. Finally, the chapter discusses assessment of the LLC and how metrics can be used to guide the success of the program.
Lundeen, Shannon B, and James C Penven. 2023. "A Model for Faculty Engagement in RLCs." In The Faculty Factor Developing Faculty Engagement with Living-Learning Communities, edited by Jennifer E Eidum and Lara Lomicka, 53-68. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
This chapter describes common models of faculty involvement within residential learning communities (RLCs). It covers some of the advantages and disadvantages of the various types of faculty engagement in RLCs, recognizing different institutional needs. The authors then introduce a conceptual model of faculty engagement in RLCs, which organizes factors influencing faculty engagement in RLCs into four spheres: institutional context, organizational structure, professional motivations, and personal motivations.
Manz, Jonathan W, Mark Daniel Ward, and Ellen Gundlach. 2023. "“Mine” the Gap: Connecting Curriculum, Courses, and Community." In The Faculty Factor Developing Faculty Engagement with Living-Learning Communities, edited by Jennifer E Eidum and Lara L Lomicka, 147-161. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
A learning curriculum and linked courses are key elements of LLCs and faculty play an important role in the visions and/or design of these elements. This chapter provides guidance for faculty and residence life leadership as they create courses and develop LLC curricula, as well as for faculty teaching residentially-linked courses. Authors share their experience creating and leading The Data Mine—a large-scale LLC, featuring a curriculum that weaves classroom instruction with hands-on learning—as a case study of a comprehensive curricular design of LLCs.
Post, Jennifer B. 2023. "It Takes a Village: Strengthening Campus Partnerships and Developing a Faculty Handbook." In The Faculty Factor Developing Faculty Engagement with Living-Learning Communities, edited by Jennifer E. Eidum and Lara L Lomicka, 129-144. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
This chapter looks across campus to describe the role campus partnerships beyond student affairs and academic affairs can play in creating successful LLCs. From working with HR and Title IX to campus police and facilities and dining, this chapter provides a checklist of offices to work with, advice for guiding these relationships, and samples from faculty handbooks. This chapter provides general guidelines that will help readers adjust to meet the needs, structure, and culture of their campus.
Shushok, Frank Jr, and C.L. Bohannon. 2023. "Campus Cultures that Attract and Sustain Faculty Leadership in Living Learning Communities." In The Faculty Factor Developing Faculty Engagement with Living-Learning Communities, edited by Jennifer E Eidum and Lara L Lomicka, 36-50. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
This chapter describes the many ways institutions can incentivize sustained faculty involvement in LLCs, ranging from budgetary resources (such as stipends and dining credits) to professional support (such as working with Deans, support for promotion and tenure, etc.). The authors provide personal reflections and practical insights into fostering an institutional culture that prioritizes the educational potential of living-learning programs and incentivizes faculty to explore and embrace this new venue for teaching and learning.
Barefoot, Betsy O. 2000. "The First-Year Experience: Are We Making It Any Better?" About Campus 4 (6): 12-18.
Barefoot writes that high-quality FYE have small class size to increase student-to-faculty interactions; integration of curricular and co-curricular experiences; increased investment of time on campus; and high academic expectations. Barefoot emphasizes that these are the areas that FYE should be focused on in order to obtain the desired outcomes in first-year students. These outcomes are most commonly student retention after the first year and higher grade point averages. The best practices that Barefoot identifies for FYE are similar to the characteristics of HIPs identified by Kuh, O’Donnell, and Schneider in 2017.
Berdrow, Iris, Rebecca Cruise, Ekaterina Levintova, Sabine Smith, Laura Boudon, Dan Paracka, and Paul M. Worley. 2020. "Exploring Patterns of Student Global Learning Choices: A Multi-Institutional Study." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
A combination of institutional and individual factors matter in making choices to pursue study away. A holistic approach to global learning including both classroom and co-curricular opportunities is superior to efforts only to increase study abroad numbers. These holistic approaches can benefit both students who do study abroad and those who do not.
Deardorff, Darla K., and Dawn Michele Whitehead. 2020. "Expanding the Perceptions and Realities of Global Learning: Connecting Disciplines Through Integrative Global Learning and Assessment." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
This chapter provides a broad perspective on assessing global learning. Whitehead and Deardorff suggest having input on assessment from a variety of sources including students, educators, administrators, and staff and designing holistic models of assessment that extend beyond the learner’s college or university years.
Drake Gobbo, Linda, and Joseph G. Hoff. 2020. "Approaching Internationalization as an Ecosystem." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
A Global Learning Ecosystem comprises administrative, curricular, and co-curricular efforts within a college or university. Internationalization, including enrolling international students who join in creating global learning for themselves and for students who do not leave campus, is a useful way of considering global learning. Faculty and staff development and attention to programming across the ecosystem can enhance global learning both on and off campus.
Engle, Lilli, and John Engle. 2003. "Study Abroad Levels: Toward a Classification of Program Types." Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad 9 (1): 1-20.
In basic terms, this article is helpful in how it describes study away experiences using five levels, with full immersion representing the highest level of learning engagement. More importantly, the article does a good job of demonstrating comparable differences in the range of study away experiences that a typical college student might have. The authors suggest that deeply immersive experiences, such as ones that involve home stays, language challenges, and/or community-based interactions or professional internships, provide students with deeper levels of learning engagement on a variety of fronts than ones in which students live in co-housing or take classes in their primary language. The article also discusses the value of authentic cultural engagement and the need for guided reflective processing to help students make sense of potentially dissonant experiences.
Hartman, Eric, Richard Kiely, Christopher Boettcher, and Jessica Friedrichs. 2018. Community-Based Global Learning: The Theory and Practice of Ethical Engagement at Home and Abroad. . Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.
Hartman et al. make a strong case for responsible community-based learning of all forms, but specifically for engagement that takes place between students and universities and their international community partners. And, although this book does not explicitly focus on immersive practices, there are numerous examples of deeply immersive learning experiences throughout many of the chapters. Many of the examples provided demonstrate many of the components of immersive learning as defined in this resource including authentic, place-based engagement, the need for heightened student agency, students reckoning with dissonant experiences, and the need for reflection as a method of sense–making.
Holgate, Horane, Heidi E. Parker, and Charles A. Calahan. 2020. "Assessing Global Competency Development in Diverse Learning Environments." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
This chapter presents three short scales assessing civic engagement, intercultural knowledge and intercultural competence, all based on AAC&U VALUE rubrics. These scales, which are free to access and use, are suitable for assessing a variety of global learning contexts.
Layne, Prudence, Sarah Glasco, Joan Gillespie, Dana Gross, and Lisa Jasinski. 2020. "#FacultyMatter: Faculty Support and Interventions Integrated into Global Learning." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
Like their students, faculty are also global learners. As such, scholars need to investigate the impact of teaching in disorienting settings on faculty and that colleges and universities need to provide professional development in pedagogy appropriate to these contexts and to facilitate opportunities for faculty to reflect on and process the experiences.
Levintova, Ekaterina, Sabine Smith, Rebecca Cruise, Iris Berdrow, Laura Boudon, Dan Paracka, and Paul M. Worley. 2020. "Have Interest, Will NOT Travel: Unexpected Reasons Why Students Opt Out of International Study." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
Some factors like military experience, family responsibilities, health concerns, and being a student athlete can preclude international study for some students. Universities can help students integrate previous experiences like military deployment or international family travel with other high-impact practices like internships and service-learning. They can also ameliorate some of the scheduling and responsibility concerns for students who do want to travel for study.
Manning, Scott, Zachary Frieders, and Lynette Bikos. 2020. "When Does Global Learning Begin? Recognizing the Value of Student Experiences Prior to Study Away." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
When you ask students to describe valuable experiences in preparing for study away, previous travel and encounters with diversity matter and should be considered when developing pre-departure experiences. Institutions and instructors can use a strengths-based focus to help students to transfer what they have learned from previous domestic and international experiences.
Moore, Jessie L. 2020. "Epilogue: Global Learning as High-Quality Engaged Learning." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, 189-194. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Namaste, Nina, and Amanda Sturgill. 2020. "Introduction." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
Key issues in understanding study away today include: the artificial silos between international and domestic off-campus study and the need to understand study away in the context of the changing world of higher education in general. In particular, study away is no longer the extended time abroad that has been the focus of earlier studies. This volume explores factors related to students, faculty and programs that provide off-campus learning at home and abroad.
Namaste, Nina, and Amanda Sturgill. 2020. "Opportunities and Challenges of Ethical, Effective Global Learning." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
Quality study away needs to address a set of ethical imperatives including rejecting colonialist models in favor of seeking reciprocity, using high-quality research findings to maximize learning from both domestic and international off-campus experiences, and intentionally integrating both kinds of study away with the larger college and university experience.
Namaste, Nina B. 2017. "Designing and Evaluating Students' Transformative Learning." The Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning 8 (3). http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cjsotl_rcacea/vol8/iss3/5/.
Paras, Andrea, and Lynne Mitchell. 2020. "Up for the Challenge? The Role of Disorientation and Dissonance in Intercultural Learning." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
Experiences of cognitive dissonance can help explain shifts in development of intercultural competence. Quality global learning experiences should embrace opportunities to encounter and be made uncomfortable by difference and encourage students to recognize dissonance when it occurs.
Rathburn, Melanie, Jodi Malmgren, Ashley Brenner, Michael Carignan, Jane Hardy, and Andrea Paras. 2020. "Assessing Intercultural Competence in Student Writing: A Multi-Institutional Study." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
When working with short-term, faculty-led programs, written reflective writing and opportunities for working with local communities enhance global learning. Service-learning, which can be done in both international and domestic contexts, causes greater shifts in perspective and enhanced demonstration of ability to adapt behavior and manage emotions in different contexts.
Sturgill, Amanda. 2020. "Crossing Borders at Home: The Promise of Global Learning Close to Campus." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
Learners don’t have to cross geopolitical borders to be global learners, which is good news for students whose degree plans, life factors, or finances preclude international travel. This chapter explores some of the types of global learning possible without even leaving the town, offering results that suggest that quality domestic off-campus study CAN produce change towards intercultural competency.
Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen, Joan Ruelle, and Tim Peeples. 2020. "Mapping Understandings of Global Engagement." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
To define global engagement requires “intentional integration of three critical foundational domains: learning/knowledge, skills/behaviors, and attitudes/dispositions.” Under this definition, global engagement occurs in both international and domestic contexts as students have mentored off- and on-campus experiences.
Vercamer, Bert, Linda Stuart, and Hazar Yildrim. 2020. "Global Competence Development: Blended Learning within a Constructivist Paradigm." In Mind the Gap: Global Learning at Home and Abroad, edited by Nina Namaste and Amanda Sturgill, Stylus.
This chapter examines the use of an online preparatory curriculum for study abroad that mixes informative materials, peer learning, and cultural mentoring. The authors find that this type of curriculum improves both culture-specific and culture-general learning.
Inks, Scott, and Ramon Avila. 2008. "Preparing the Next Generation of Sales Professionals through Social, Experiential, and Immersive Learning Experiences." Journal for Advancement of Marketing Education 13 (1): 47-55.
This article focuses on designing student–directed, authentic, community-based learning experiences for students and the need for an active facilitative guide from a faculty member. This article draws nuanced learning engagement distinctions between types of work-integrated learning experiences and models of service learning. It also points out interesting differences between the immersive learning experiences as described in the article and internships stating that in the former students benefit from the active and continual involvement by a faculty member in ways that aren’t part of the typical internship experience. The article further defines the team-based approach of the designed immersive learning experience and the inherent value of students experiencing and learning from the authentic, partnered work together.
Lave, Jean, and Etienne Wenger. 1991. Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
This book is an essential text for anyone interested in the theory that all learning is situated in a specific context and that placing students in learning environments that most closely approximate the specific nature of the learning goals of the experience is beneficial. Lave and Wenger give support for the idea that providing students with opportunities for authentic engagement within a specific topic or domain can be the best way for them to connect abstract, disciplinary knowledge to an eventual need or applied usage.
Warner, Beth, and Judy Esposito. 2009. "What’s Not in the Syllabus: Faculty Transformation, Role Modeling and Role Conflict in Immersion Service-Learning Courses." International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 20 (3): 510-517.
This article describes immersive learning in the context of international service learning (or domestic service learning that happens away from the local community surrounding an institution) where students and faculty live and work together in a deeply immersive environment. The article is careful to articulate the difference in international or away service learning, where the immersion is constant, with localized experiences where the service learning experience is socketed into a student’s day. The article also discusses the value and need of the instructor working in close proximity to students as a facilitative guide to the learning experience.
Coll, Richard K., R. W. Eames, Levinia K. Paku, Dave Hodges, Ravi Bhat, Shiu Ram, Diana Ayling, Jenny Fleming, Lesley Ferkins, Cindy Wiersma, and Andrew Martin. 2009. "An exploration of the pedagogies employed to integrate knowledge in work-integrated learning." Journal of Cooperative Education & Internships 43 (1): 14-35.
In a national research project analyzing data from employers, students, and practitioners, the study finds a lack of consistent methods and pedagogies for ensuring integration of knowledge in New Zealand’s Work-Integrated Knowledge (WIL)/cooperative education program. Makes specific recommendations for practitioners based on these findings.
Divine, Richard, Robert Miller, J. H. Wilson, and JoAnn Linrud. 2008. "Key philosophical decisions to consider when designing an internship program." Journal of Management and Marketing 12: 1-8.
Discusses important decisions that practitioners must make when designing internship programs. Includes brief discussion of research finding relevant to these decisions. Includes topics such as required vs elective internships, graded vs ungraded experiences, full-time vs part-time experiences, and managed vs unmanaged placement of students.
Eyler, Janet. 2009. "The power of experiential education." Liberal Education: 24-31.
Elucidates the possibilities and challenges of internships and service-learning, emphasizing the unique roles these experiences can play in bidirectional transfer of learning between classroom and the workplace and other higher level intellectual skills and learning outcomes. Summarizes succinctly guidelines for creating high quality programs.
Garraway, James, Terence Volbrecht, Merrill Wicht, and Bhekumusa Ximba. 2011. "Transfer of knowledge between university and work." Teaching in HIgher Education 16 (5): 529-540.
Focuses on internship experiences of students in the sciences, examining student perceptions of transfer of learning in their work along with additional data collected from site supervisors. Identifies various forms of learning transfer described by students and concludes that faculty have a key role in ensuring knowledge transfer in internships. The article also provides an excellent summary of the transfer of knowledge literature.
Hayward, Lorna, Betsey Blackmer, and Joseph Raelin. 2007. "Teaching students a process of reflection: A model for increasing practice-based learning outcomes during cooperative education." Journal of Cooperative Education and Internships 41: 35-47.
Using an experimental design, the study examines the impact of teaching physical therapy students a specific reflection model (i.e., Model of Effective Practice) as a tool for deepening student reflection during a cooperative education experience. Students in the test group demonstrated significant benefits, indicating the importance and value of teaching internship students skills of reflection prior to the experience.
Linn, Patricia I., Adam Howard, and Eric Miller. 2004. Handbook for research in cooperative education and internship. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
A guide for designing and implementing high quality research on internships. Includes examples of studies illustrating a range of methodological approaches, discusses the role of theory in research design, explains program assessment as it relates to research, and considers relevant ethical issues.
Moore, David T. 2013. Engaged learning in the academy: Challenges and possibilities. NY: Palgrave MacMillan.
Provides a comprehensive and well-researched overview of experiential learning in higher education with emphasis on internships and service-learning. An important and foundational reading for practitioners and researchers seeking to understand the issues and controversies in the field as well as current evidence regarding engaged learning’s educational potential. Encourages reflective practice and provides key tools for reflective practitioners and scholars.
Narayanan, V. K., Paul M. Olk, and Cynthia V. Fukami. 2010. "Determinants of internship effectiveness: An exploratory model." Academy of Management Learning & Education 9: 61-80.
Drawing upon knowledge transfer theory, this study examines the roles that students, universities, and businesses play in internship effectiveness in effort to construct a multistage model of determinants of internship effectiveness. Offers recommendations for each of these participant stakeholders geared toward enhancing internship effectiveness and makes suggestions for future research.
O'Neill, Nancy. 2010. "Internships as high impact practice: Some reflections on quality." Peer Review 12 (4): 4-8.
Describes the opportunities and challenges in developing high-impact internships. Offers an excellent discussion of definitional issues in the field and provides suggested guidelines for developing high-impact experiences. Emphasizes the role of institutions in developing high quality experiences.
Schutte, Kelli J. 2007. "Journey or destination: A study of experiential education, reflection, and cognitive development." Journal of Cooperative Education and Internships 41 (1): 118-129.
Using an experimental design, the study examines the role of reflection in the cognitive development of students in internship. Defines “internship” and “reflection” and describes the structure of the internship experience focused on in the study. Concludes that critical reflection is not a natural skill for most students and must be taught and guided by faculty. Implications for practitioners and scholars are discussed.
Simons, Lori, Lawrence Fehr, Nancy Blank, Heather Connell, Denise Georganas, David Fernandex, and Verda Peterson. 2012. "Lessons learned from experiential learning: What do students learn from a practicum/internship?" International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 24 (3): 325-334.
Employs a multi-method approach to identify student learning outcomes in psychology internships. Employs pre-test/post-test surveys and perspectives of students, field supervisors, and faculty. Findings include that students increased in multicultural skills and grew in personal, civic, and career development.
Benjamin, Mimi, ed. 2015. Learning communities from start to finish: New directions for student services, Number 149. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
This edited collection provides theoretical foundations for learning communities and recent research on institutional structures that foster success in implementing, maintaining, and assessing learning communities. Chapters include:
Gabelnick, Faith, Jean MacGregor, Roberta S. Matthews, and Barbara L. Smith, eds. 1990. Learning Communities: Creating Connections Among Students, Faculty, and Disciplines. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, #41. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
In this early comprehensive look at learning communities, the authors draw from the foundational work of Dewey, Meiklejohn, and Tussman and present five basic models of learning communities: linked courses, learning clusters, freshman interest groups, federated learning communities, and coordinated studies. Learning communities are defined as “any one of a variety of curricular structures that link together several existing courses, or restructure the curricular material entirely, so that students have opportunities for deeper understanding and integration of the material they are learning, and more interaction with one another and their teachers as fellow participants in the learning process.” They assert that students should experience a learning community at least once and early in their college career, and that membership in at least one such supportive community may be enough to ensure a student’s persistence. They offer a practical checklist for issues of implementation and sustainability, and address strategies and difficulties related to teaching in learning communities through collaborative design and planning. Two chapters of the book address student and faculty experiences and responses to learning communities, and the final chapter looks ahead to the future of learning communities and curricular reform. There is also a section of resources provided.
Kuh, George D. 1996. "Guiding Principles for Creating Learning Environments for Undergraduates." Journal of College Student Development 37 (2): 135-148.
The author presents six principles “to guide institutional efforts to enhance student learning and personal development by more purposefully integrating curricular goals and outcomes with students’ experiences outside the classroom.” Based on existing research, the author shares ten conditions that foster student learning and personal development that when implemented together represent an institution with a seamless learning environment, that is, an environment that takes once separate parts of the academic experience (e.g., in-class and out-of-class, academic and non-academic, curricular and co-curricular, on- and off-campus experiences) and blends them into a whole and continuous experience. The six principles reflect the broad scope of activities that must be implemented to move toward an ethos of learning: generate enthusiasm for institutional renewal; create a common vision for learning; develop a common language; foster collaboration and cross-functional dialogue; examine the influence of student cultures on student learning; and focus on systemic change. Some institutions may require additional interventions not described in the six principles. The principles are also not presented as a “hierarchy of activities” – an institution may begin with any one of the activities to move toward an ethos of learning, though all must be addressed.
Leary, Margaret, Tina M. Muller, Samantha Kramer, John Sopper, Richard D. Gebauer, and Mary Ellen Wade. 2022. "Defining Collaboration Through the Lens of a Delphi Study: Student Affairs and Academic Affairs Partnerships in Residential Learning Communities." The Qualitative Report 27 (3): 664-690. https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/2022.5276.
A multi-institutional research team from the 2017-2019 research seminar on Residential Learning Communities as a High-Impact Practice examines collaboration between student affairs and academic affairs. Using a Delphi method, the team explored how academic and student affairs professionals define collaboration in residential learning communities and distilled a definition through multiple rounds of feedback. The research team’s resulting definition is: “Collaboration between academic and student affairs is the continuous process of cultivating an independent relationship where each stakeholder is mutually committed to working toward the shared purpose of holistic student learning” (p. 671).
Lenning, Oscar T., Denise M. Hill, Kevin P. Saunders, Alisha Solan, and Andria Stokes. 2013. Powerful Learning Communities: A Guide to Developing Student, Faculty and Professional Learning Communities to Improve Student Success and Organizational Effectiveness. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
A current, comprehensive and highly practical guidebook for the planning and implementation of learning communities, this book moves through the entire process of creating learning communities from introducing concepts and key terms, to defining the scope and types of learning communities, to preparing for and planning, all the way through to assessing outcomes and preventing potential problems. The authors also offer chapters on creating optimal face-to-face, virtual, and hybrid learning communities; conceptual frameworks; achieving optimal student success using the various types of learning communities; and legal and ethical considerations. There are also extensive appendices that provide further information and tools for institutions. Each chapter begins with a “What’s the Story?” feature that highlights a real-life scenario that gives context to the chapter’s content, with a corresponding “The Rest of the Story” section that offers a recap of the scenario and possible actions and solutions. A 90-page PDF companion resource is also available online.
Schroeder, Charles C., and Phyllis Mable, eds. 1994. Realizing the Educational Potential of Residence Halls. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
The integration of the residence hall environment into the college experience is the focus of this book by Charles Schroeder, Phyllis Mable and other well-respected student development scholars. The authors emphasize the integration of “students’ formal academic experiences with their informal out-of-class experiences through collaborative efforts between educators in academic affairs and student affairs.” The book is organized into three sections that focus on different aspects of the residence hall as a learning environment. Part 1 explores the role of residence halls in educating students, which includes a historical overview, review of relevant research, six elements of the successful implementation of residential programs, methods for linking residence halls to curricular practices, and the need for intentional design. Part 2 looks at how to promote learning in the residence halls through the creation of learner-centered environments, the integration of curricular goals, the maximization of peer influences, and the promotion of diversity and civic leadership. Part 3, entitled Strengthening the Educational Impacts of Residence Life, looks at assessment of the residential experience, extracts five themes from the book, and makes fifteen recommendations for implementing a residence hall curriculum.
Shapiro, Nancy S., and Jodi H. Levine. 1999. Creating Learning Communities: A Practical Guide to Winning Support, Organizing for Change, and Implementing Programs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Shapiro and Levine present a comprehensive handbook for the implementation of learning communities on college campuses. In the first two chapters they define and describe the characteristics of learning communities, highlight historical influences and contemporary settings, and describe current models and approaches to learning communities. The next three chapters articulate the types of transformative changes that need to occur for learning communities to take root and flourish in higher education environments, which includes practical advice on human and fiscal resources, curricular implications, and the importance of changing faculty roles and reward structures. Chapters six and seven deal in the practical aspects of administrative partnerships and logistics – planning, registration, marketing, and community building. Following that are two chapters devoted to evaluation and assessment, with the final chapter offering helpful lessons and advice.
Zhao, Chun-Mei, and George D. Kuh. 2004. "Adding Value: Learning Communities and Student Engagement." Research in Higher Education 45 (2): 115-138.
This study was conducted in order to determine whether student success can be linked to participation in a learning community, success being defined as student engagement in educationally purposeful activities, self-reported gains in a variety of outcomes, and overall satisfaction with the college experience. For the purposes of the study, a learning community was defined as a formal program where groups of students take two or more classes together, that may or may not have a residential component. The study used the National Survey for Student Engagement (NSSE), an annual survey of first-year and senior students, that measures the degree to which students participate in educational practices linked to the desired outcomes of college. The survey sample was 80,479 randomly selected first-year and senior students from 365 4-year colleges and universities who completed the survey in the spring of 2002. The results support the assertion that participating in learning communities is “uniformly and positively linked with student academic performance, engagement in educationally fruitful activities, gains associated with college attendance, and overall satisfaction with the college experience.” The article goes on to describe these effects in detail.
Limitations of the study include the wording of the question (it is impossible to determine if students had already participated in a learning community or if they were planning to do so); inability to distinguish between the different types of learning communities in which students had participated; the reliability of some of the scales employed in the study; and the measures are based on self-reported data. The study does, however, provide evidence that learning communities do warrant classification as a high-impact educational practice, and based on this the authors recommend two actions: 1) every campus should evaluate how many and what kinds of learning communities exist on campus and the numbers of different groups of students who are participating in them; 2) efforts should be focused on creating additional learning communities and attracting underrepresented students to participate them, such as male students, transfer students, and part-time students as these are the groups least likely to participate in learning communities before graduation.
Amin, S., Andrea Hunt, Michael Neal, Ruth Palmer, Christin Scholz, and Brad Wuetherick. 2014. "Mentoring of undergraduate research and identity development." Presentation at Pre-ISSOTL CUR Symposium, Quebec City, Canada, October 22, 2014.
Baker, Vicki L., Meghan J. Pifer, Laura G. Lunsford, Jane Greer, and Dijana Ihas. 2015. "Faculty as mentors in undergraduate research, scholarship, and creative work: Motivating and inhibiting factors. ." Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning. http://10.1080/13611267.2015.1126164.
Baker, Vicki L., Jane Greer, Laura G. Lunsford, Dijana Ihas, and Meghan J. Pifer. 2018. "Supporting Faculty Development for Mentoring in Undergraduate Research, Scholarship, and Creative Work." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, 131-153. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Crisp, Gloria, Vicki L. Baker, Kimberly A. Griffin, Laura Gail Lunsford, and Meghan J. Pifer. 2017. "Mentoring Undergraduate Students." ASHE Higher Education Report 43 (1).
Davis, Shannon N., Duhita Mahatmya, Pamela W. Garner, and Rebecca M. Jones. 2015. "Mentoring undergraduate scholars: A pathway to interdisciplinary research?" Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning DOI: 10.1080/13611267.2015.1126166.
Garnder, Pamela W., Duhita Mahatmya, Rebecca M. Jones, and Shannon N. Davis. 2018. "Undergraduate Research Mentoring Relationships: A Mechanism for Developing Social Capital for Underrepresented Students." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, 77-103. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Hall, Eric E., Helen Walkington, Jenny Olin Shanahan, Elizabeth Ackley, and K. A. Stewart. 2018. "Mentor perspectives on the place of undergraduate research mentoring in academic identity and career development: An analysis of award winning mentors." International Journal of Academic Development 23 (1): 15-27. https://doi.org/10.1080/1360144X.2017.1412972.
Hall, Eric E, Helen Walkington, Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler, Jenny Olin Shanahan, R. K. Gudiksen, and M. M. Zimmer. 2018. "Enhancing short-term undergraduate research experiences in study abroad: curriculum design and mentor development." PURM: Perspectives on Undergraduate Research and Mentoring 7 (1): 1-17. http://blogs.elon.edu/purm/files/2018/10/Hall_Walkington_VandermaasPeeler_Shanahan_Gudiksen_Zimmer_main.pdf.
Hill, Jennifer, and Helen Walkington. 2016. "Developing Graduate Attributes through Participation in Undergraduate Research Conferences." Journal of Geography in Higher Education 40 (2): 222-237. https://doi.org/10.1080/03098265.2016.1140128.
This article examines students’ experiences at a national undergraduate research conference in an effort to understand the development of graduate attributes, which are the framework of skills, attitudes, values and knowledge that graduates ought to have developed by the end of their degrees. The research takes a largely qualitative approach, using semi-structured interviews to collect data. The authors explain that research on graduate attributes is relevant because there is a growing, international conversation about the purpose and characteristics of higher education, and that it is becoming ever more important for institutions to justify their social roles to students. This article focuses on a case study of 22 Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) graduates, and forms part of a larger study on interdisciplinary graduate attributes. Additionally, the authors split the attributes they analyzed into five categories: communication; research and inquiry skills; personal and intellectual autonomy; ethical, social, and professional understanding; and information literacy. Notably, the authors found that the conference provided a safe and supportive, while also challenging, context for students to develop these skills. This research highlights the importance of opportunities to develop such skills outside of formal disciplinary curricula.
Hill, Jennifer, Helen Walkington, and Derek France. 2016. "Graduate attributes: implications for higher education practice and policy." Journal of Geography in Higher Education 40 (2): 155-163. https://doi.org/10.1080/03098265.2016.1154932.
This article offers an overview of existing higher education literature on and attitudes towards the development of graduate attributes, while introducing the papers which comprised a symposium on this research context. One issue the authors discuss is the extent of the connection between what academic staff set up for students in terms of skill development and how much students actually experience. The authors also note the importance of students accepting agency in the process of developing their own graduate attributes, rather than letting the system determine their identities. In their conclusion, the authors emphasize that regardless of inconsistencies in teaching and assessing graduate attributes, they play a valuable role in enhancing learning and connecting learning to work beyond students’ academic careers.
Johnson, W. Brad. 2018. "Foreword." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, ix-xii. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Johnson, Brad W., Laura L. Behling, Paul C. Miller, and Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler. 2015. "Undergraduate research mentoring: Obstacles and opportunities." Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning DOI: 10.1080/13611267.2015.1126167.
Ketcham, Caroline J., Eric E. Hall, Heather M. Fitz Gibbon, and Helen Walkington. 2018. "Co-Mentoring in Undergraduate Research: A Faculty Development Perspective." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, 155-179. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Ketcham, Caroline J., Eric E. Hall, and Paul C. Miller. 2017. "Co-Mentoring Undergraduate Research: Student, Faculty and Institutional Perspectives." Perspectives on Undergraduate Research and Mentoring 6 (1). http://blogs.elon.edu/purm/files/2017/10/final_Ketcham-Hall-Miller_main.pdf.
This article outlines the benefits and challenges of co-mentoring for students, faculty mentors, and institutions. The authors themselves have several years of experience co-mentoring undergraduate research projects, and offer insights they have gained through those projects. The authors present the co-mentoring model they have developed and a practical guide to co-mentoring, incorporating salient practices of mentoring undergraduate research. In their conclusion, the authors note that a lot of work needs to happen to foster co-mentoring relationships, but if that happens, they can be extremely beneficial to all involved parties.
Kneale, Pauline, Andrew Edwards-Jones, Helen Walkington, and Jennifer Hill. 2016. "Evaluating undergraduate research conferences as vehicles for novice researcher development." International Journal for Researcher Development 7 (2): 159-177. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJRD-10-2015-0026.
This paper assesses the significance of participation in undergraduate research conferences on students’ attitudes and professional development, including the development of graduate attributes. The paper positions the undergraduate research conference as an authentic learning context using the theory of situated learning. The authors interviewed 90 undergraduate students at research conferences, and analyzed their responses using the Researcher Development Framework. Students reported that paper presentations, poster presentations, and the overall conference experience were particularly valuable to their skill development. Two of these skills were public engagement and communication, which the authors note are routinely sought after by employers. The authors also offered some suggestions to conference organizers in order to maximize skill development, including providing dedicated networking time within the program.
Larson, Susan, Lee Partridge, Helen Walkington, Brad Wuetherick, and Jessie L. Moore. 2018. "An International Conversation about mentored undergraduate research and inquiry and academic development." International Journal of Academic Development 23 (1): 6-14. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1360144X.2018.1415033.
Lunsford, Laura, Meghan Pifer, Vicki Baker, Jane Greer, and Dijana Ihas. 2015. "Who are Faculty Mentors of Undergraduate Research, Scholarly, or Creative Works?" Presentation at Annual meeting of the International Mentoring Association, Phoenix, AZ, April 2015.
Moore, Jessie L. 2018. "Afterword." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, 215-219. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Nicholson, Brittany A., Meagan Pollock, Caroline J. Ketcham, Heather M. Fitz Gibbon, Evan D. Bradley, and Michelle Bata. 2017. "Beyond the Mentor-Mentee Model: A Case for Multi-Mentoring in Undergraduate Research." Perspectives on Undergraduate Research and Mentoring 6 (1). http://blogs.elon.edu/purm/files/2017/10/Nicholson_et_al_6.1.pdf.
In this paper, the authors argue that multi-mentoring can be applied in a global, interdisciplinary context to undergraduate research, and make the case for moving beyond the traditional one-to-one model as the default for inquiry into undergraduate research practices. The paper includes descriptions of relevant multi-mentoring and co-mentoring models, and offers suggestions for implementing multi- and co-mentoring practices to advance the undergraduate experience. In their conclusion, the authors note that institutions will need to assist faculty mentors in overcoming some of the challenges that accompany starting out with multi-mentoring.
Palmer, Ruth J., Andrea N. Hunt, Michael Neal, and Brad Wuetherick. 2015. "Mentoring, undergraduate research, and identity development: A conceptual review and research agenda." Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning DOI: 10.1080/13611267.2015.1126165.
Palmer, Ruth J, Andrea N Hunt, Michael R Neal, and Brad Wuetherick. 2018. "Mentored Undergraduate Research: An Investigation into Students' Perceptions of Its Impact on Identity Development." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, 19-42. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Partridge, Lee, Kathy Takayama, Candace Rypisi, and Cassandra Horii. 2014. "Preparing future faculty for undergraduate research mentoring: A multi-institutional study." Presentation at Pre-ISSOTL CUR Symposium, Quebec City, Canada, October 22, 2014.
Shanahan, Jenny O., Elizabeth Ackley-Holbrook, Eric Hall, Kearsley Stewart, and Helen Walkington. 2015. "Ten salient practices of undergraduate research mentors: A review of the literature." Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning DOI: 10.1080/13611267.2015.1126162.
Shanahan, Jenny Olin, Elizabeth Ackley-Holbrook, Eric Hall, Kearsley Stewart, and Helen Walkington. 2015. "Ten salient practices of undergraduate research mentors: A review of the literature." Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning 5: 359-376. https://doi.org/10.1080/13611267.2015.1126162.
The authors conducted a literature review that focused on UR mentors’ practices. They wanted to know what effective mentorship looks like, because mentorship is the basis for successful UR. They described ten salient mentoring practices: strategic pre-planning; clear and well-scaffolded expectations; teach technical skills, method, and techniques; balance rigorous expectations with emotional support; build community among team members; dedicate time to one-on-one mentoring; increase student ownership over time; support student professional development; create opportunities for peer-mentoring; and guide students through dissemination.
Shanahan, Jenny Olin, Helen Walkington, Elizabeth Ackley, Eric E. Hall, and Kearsley A. Stewart. 2017. "Award-Winning Mentors See Democratization as the Future of Undergraduate Research." CUR Quarterly 37 (4): 4-11. https://doi.org/10.18833/curq/37/4/14.
In this article, the authors set out to identify likely future trends for undergraduate research (UR) in the next five to ten years. This research is important for the field because it can help faculty and administrators consider how they plan to allocate resources to ensure equitable and high-quality UR mentoring in the future. The authors conducted a literature review and interviews with faculty who have won awards for their commitment to and expertise of UR. Their two main findings are as follows. First, UR will likely see greater democratization in terms of greater access to opportunities for students from historically-underserved groups, students from nontraditional populations, and students with average academic performance histories. And second, mentor-mentee relationships are expected to strengthen across national and international borders as online communication capacities continue to advance. Curricula redesigns that incorporate inquiry-based learning may also facilitate greater participation in UR.
Shanahan, Jenny Olin. 2018. "Mentoring Strategies that Support Underrepresented Students in Undergraduate Research." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, 43-75. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Shawyer, S., R. Aumiller, E. E. Hall, and K. Shively. 2020. "Mentoring undergraduate research in theatre and dance: Case studies of the salient practices framework in action." PURM: Perspectives on Undergraduate Research and Mentoring 8 (1): 1-12. https://www.elon.edu/u/academics/undergraduate-research/purm/wp-content/uploads/sites/923/2020/02/Shawyer-et-al.pdf.
Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen, Pault C. Miller, and Tim Peeples. 2015. "'Mentoring is sharing the excitement of discovery': Faculty perceptions of undergraduate research mentoring." Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning DOI: 10.1080/13611267.2015.1126163.
Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen, Paul C. Miller, and Jessie L. Moore. 2018. Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
This edited collection features multi-institutional and international research from the 2014-2016 Center for Engaged Learning research seminar on Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research.
Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen, Paul C. Miller, and Jessie L. Moore. 2018. "Introduction: Considering Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research in Context." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, 1-18. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Walkington, Helen, Jennifer Hill, and Pauline E. Kneale. 2016. "Reciprocal elucidation: a student-led pedagogy in multidisciplinary undergraduate research conferences." Higher Education Research and Development 36 (2): 416-429. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2016.1208155.
This article investigates the benefits of attending a multidisciplinary research conference as an undergraduate researcher, focusing on student voices and self-perceptions of learning and skill development. The authors conducted 90 interviews with student conference participants over the course of three years, and found that the opportunity to present research in a setting outside of institutional or disciplinary contexts bolstered student researchers’ development of skills and confidence. The authors frame the undergraduate research conference as a threshold experience for self-authorship development, and thus such conferences are much more than just a space to present research findings. They also found that students who presented at conferences often reported a sense of unfinishedness, which challenges academics to consider ways to bring comparable experiences into the classroom, to provide space for students to develop knowledge through reciprocal dialogue.
Walkington, Helen, Eric E. Hall, Jenny Olin Shanahan, Elizabeth Ackley, and Kearsley Stewart. 2018. "Striving for Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research: The Challenges and Approaches to Salient Practices." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, 105-129. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Walkington, Helen, Kearsley A. Stewart, Eric E. Hall, Elizabeth Ackley, and Jenny Olin Shanahan. 2020. "Salient practices of award-winning undergraduate research mentors– balancing freedom and control to achieve excellence." Studies in Higher Education 45 (7): 1519-1532. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03075079.2019.1637838.
Walkington, Helen, and Elizabeth A. C. Rushton. 2019. "Ten salient practices for mentoring student research in schools: New opportunities for teacher professional development." Higher Education Studies 9 (4): 133-147. https://doi.org/10.5539/hes.v9n4p133.
Walkington, Helen. 2015. Students as researchers: Supporting undergraduate research in the disciplines in higher education. York, UK: Higher Education Academy.
Access online at https://www.advance-he.ac.uk/knowledge-hub/students-researchers-supporting-undergraduate-research-disciplines-higher-education
Wuetherick, Brad, John Willison, and Jenny Olin Shanahan. 2018. "Mentored Undergraduate Research at Scale: Undergraduate Research in the Curriculum and as Pedagogy." In Excellence in Mentoring Undergraduate Research, edited by Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler, Paul C. Miller and Jessie L. Moore, 181-202. Washington, D.C.: Council on Undergraduate Research.
Bharath, Del. 2020. "Using eService-learning to practice technical writing skills for emerging nonprofit professionals." Journal of Nonprofit Education and Leadership 10 (1): 62-81. https://doi.org/10.18666/JNEL-2020-V10-I1-9420.
Bharath uses an e-service learning project as an educational tool that helps students develop technical writing skills and meet their partner organization’s needs in an online nonprofit course. Furthermore, this paper provides a discussion on the benefits and challenges facing e-service learning projects.
Bourelle, Tiffany. 2014. "Adapting service-learning into the online technical communication classroom: A framework and model." Technical Communication Quarterly 23 (4): 247-264. https://doi.org/10.1080/10572252.2014.941782.
Bourelle implements an e-service learning project in a distance communication course. The researcher specifically examined students’ sense of civic responsibility, application of skills, peer learning, and their use of technology.
Branker, Kadra, Jacqueline Corbett, Jane Webster, and Joshua M. Pearce. 2010. "Hybrid Virtual- and Field Work-Based Service Learning with Green Information Technology and Systems Projects." Informational Journal for Service Learning in Engineering 5 (2): 44-59. https://doi.org/10.24908/ijsle.v5i2.3166.
In this study, the authors take a hybrid-approach to create a service-learning project with Engineering students. Using a two-prong approach, the authors had students completed the first half of the project virtually and second half in the field. Additionally, the authors reflected on the use of virtual versus traditional methods of service-learning.
Dailey-Hebert, Ashley, Emily Donnelli-Sallee, and Laurie N. DiPadvoa-Stocks, eds. 2008. Service-eLearning: Educating for Citizenship. Information Age Publishing, Inc..
Grounded in the theory-to-practice of service-learning, this edited book proposes a new model that blends existing service-learning methods with eLearning pedagogy. The book also recognizes how emerging technology can shape how students participate in eService-learning projects.
Dailey-Herber, Amber, and Emily Donnelli. 2010. "Service-eLearning: Educating Today’s Learners for an Unscripted Future." International Journal of Organizational Analysis 18 (2): 216-227. https://doi.org/10.1108/19348831011046272.
This paper examines how educators can use eLearning pedagogies in service-learning courses through theoretical frameworks and practical considerations. Though authors intended to use their findings to help create innovative pedagogical approaches to respond to emerging technology and educational preferences of Millennials, the results can be adapted to fit Gen-Z students as well.
García-Gutierrez, Juan, Marta Ruiz-Corbella, and Araceli del Pozo Armentia. 2017. " Developing Civic Engagement in Distance Higher Education: A Case Study of Virtual Service-Learning (vSL) Programme in Spain." Open Praxis 9 (2): 235-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.9.2.578.
Using the university’s competence framework and the service-learning methodology, the authors propose a virtual service-learning project between students from the Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (Spain) and the University of Porto-Novo (Benin).
Guthrie, Kathy L., and Holly McCracken. 2010. "Making a Difference Online: Facilitating Service-Learning through Distance Education." Internet and Higher Education 13: 153-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2010.02.006.
Through this case study, Guthrie and McCraken examine how service-learning pedagogies can be used in an online format. The authors explore how to create a virtual learning environment as well as the associated benefits and challenges.
Harris, Usha S. 2017. "Virtual Partnerships: Engaging Students in E-service Learning Using Computer-mediated Communication." Asia Pacific Media Educator 27 (1): 103-117. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1326365X17701792.
The author examined how Australian students engaged in mediated intercultural dialogue through an e-service learning project with a non-government organization in India. Additionally, the author analyzed the online tools students utilize and their online communication processes and habits during this project.
McWhorter, Rochell R., Julia A. Delello, and Paul B. Roberts. 2016. "Giving Back: Exploring Service-Learning in an Online Learning Environment." Journal of Interactive Online Learning 14 (2): 80-99.
McWhorter, Delello, and Roberts examined how service-learning opportunities could be embedded in an online graduate business course. The study sought to understand the academics benefits of having a service-learning an online course and how did students apply their coursework to their service-learning experience.
Purcell, Jennifer W. 2017. "Community‐Engaged Pedagogy in the Virtual Classroom: Integrating eService‐Learning Into Online Leadership Education." Journal of Leadership Studies 11 (1): 65-70. https://doi.org/10.1002/jls.21515.
Using theoretical and practical consideration, Purcell examines how community-engaged pedagogies, such as service-learning, can be used by leadership educators in creating an online community-engaged course.
Sandy, Marie G., and Zeno E. Franco. 2014. "Grounding Service-Learning in the Digital Age: Exploring a Virtual Sense of Geographic Place Through Online Collaborative Mapping and Mixed Media." Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement 18 (4): 201-227. https://openjournals.libs.uga.edu/jheoe/article/view/1158.
In this case study, the authors explore using collaborative mapping to help students create a virtual sense of place in their service e-learning experience.
Soria, Krista M., and Brad Weiner. 2013. "A “Virtual Fieldtrip”: Service Learning in Distance Education Technical Writing Courses." Journal of Technical Writing and Communication 43 (2): 181-200. https://doi.org/10.2190%2FTW.43.2.e.
The authors performed a mixed-methods experimental study to see how incorporating a virtual service-learning experience can affect student learning outcomes in a distance technical writing course. The purpose of the study was to determine how service-learning could enhance student learning outcomes in a distance course and to understand how virtual learning can be deepened through community engagement.
Waldner, Leora, Sue McGorry, and Murray Widener. 2010. "Extreme E-Service Learning (XE-SL): E-Service Learning in the 100% Online Course." MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching 64 (4): 839-851. https://jolt.merlot.org/vol6no4/waldner_1210.pdf.
In this study, the authors explore the concept of extreme e-service learning, where instruction and service projects are entirely online. Additionally, the authors examine the benefits, challenges, and best practices of implementing an extreme e-service learning experience.
Waldner, Leora S., Murray C. McGorry, and Sue Y. Widener. 2012. "E-Service Learning: The Evolution of Service-Learning to Engage a Growing Online Student Population." Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement 16 (2): 123-150. https://openjournals.libs.uga.edu/jheoe/article/view/936.
In this literature review, the authors examined the evolution and expansion of e-service learning. From this review, they have identified four types of e-service learning—Hybrid: Instruction Online with Service on Site, Hybrid: Instruction on Site with Service Online, Hybrid: Instruction and/or Service Partially on Site and Partially Online, and Extreme: Instruction and Service 100% Online—and best practices in conducting these endeavors.
Yusof, Azizah, Noor Azean Atan, Jamalludin Harun, and Mehran Doulatabadi. 2019. "Developing Students Graduate Attributes in Service Learning Project through Online Platform." Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management: 3524-3537. http://ieomsociety.org/ieom2019/papers/815.pdf.
Though this study provides a mixture of face-to-face and online instruction to create a hybrid service-learning experience for Engineering undergraduate students in Malaysia, the authors explore how virtual tools such as online discussions and online meetings can have a positive impact on the student’s learning and engagement.
Adler-Kassner, Linda. 2017. "Transfer and educational reform in the twenty-first century: College and career readiness and the Common Core Standards." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 15-26. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Adler-Kassner, Linda, and Elizabeth Wardle, eds. 2015. Naming what we know: Threshold concepts of writing studies. Boulder, CO: Utah State UP.
Contributors define thirty-seven threshold concepts in the discipline of writing studies and examine the application of threshold concepts in specific sites of writing.
Adler-Kassner, Linda. 2014. "Liberal Learning, Professional Training, and Disciplinarity in the Age of Educational ‘Reform': Remodeling General Education." College English 76.5: 436-457.
Adler-Kassner, Linda, John Majewski, and Damian Koshnick. 2012. "The Value of Troublesome Knowledge: Transfer and Threshold Concepts in Writing and History." Composition Forum 26. http://compositionforum.com/issue/26/troublesome-knowledge-threshold.php.
Adler-Kassner, Linda, and John Majewski. 2012. "Current Contexts: Students, Their Instructors, and Threshold Concepts." Presentation at Conference on College Composition and Communication, St. Louis, MO 2012.
Anson, Chris A., and Jessie L. Moore, eds. 2016/2017. Critical Transitions: Writing and the Question of Transfer. Fort Collins, CO: The WAC Clearinghouse and University Press of Colorado.
Anson, Chris M. 2016. "The Pop Warner Chronicles: A Case Study in Contextual Adaptation and the Transfer of Writing Ability." College Composition and Communication 67 (4): 518-549.
Anson, Chris. 2012. "Current Research on Writing Transfer." Presentation at National Council of Teachers of English Conference, Las Vegas, NV 2012.
Baird, Neil, Alena Kasparkova, Stephen Macharia, and Amanda Sturgill. 2022. "“What One Learns in College Only Makes Sense When Practicing It at Work”: How Early-Career Alumni Evaluate Writing Success." In Writing Beyond the University Preparing Lifelong Learners for Lifewide Writing, edited by Julia Bleakney, Jessie L Moore and Paula Rosinski, 168-182. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
The Alumni Writing Transfer Project examines the school-to-work transitions of twelve early career alumni from the United States, Kenya, and the Czech Republic and suggests a framework for supporting college students through that transition.
Barnett, Brooke, Woody Pelton, Francois Masuka, Kevin Morrison, and Jessie L. Moore. 2017. "Diversity, global citizenship, and writing transfer." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 59-68. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Bass, Randall. 2017. "Coda: Writing transfer and the future of the integrated university." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 144-154. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Blakeslee, Ann M., Jennifer C. Mallette, Rebecca S. Nowacek, Rifenburg Michael J., and Liane Robertson. 2022. "Navigating Workplace Writing as a New Professional: The Roles of Workplace Environment, Writerly Identity, and Mentoring and Support." In Writing Beyond the University Preparing Lifelong Learners for Lifewide Writing, edited by Julia Bleakney, Jessie L Moore and Paula Rosinski, 139-153. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
Highlighting the experiences of eight early-career alumni from five US institutions, these authors illustrate how supports in college and the workplace can prepare students for more successful transitions into workplace writing as alumni.
Bleakney, Julia, Li Li, Emily Holland, Paula Rosinski, and Jessie L Moore. 2021. "Rhetorical Training Across the University: What and Where Students and Alumni Learn about Writing." Composition Forum 47 (Fall 2021). https://compositionforum.com/issue/47/rhetorical-training.php.
The authors report on a survey of students and alumni, examining their “rhetorical training”—their writing knowledge and experiences across multiple courses, campus employment, and workplace contexts. The survey asked participants to identify their most often written genres and their most valued type of writing, the rhetorical situations in which they compose their most valued genre, and the writing processes they have developed. The authors examined the multiple sources of rhetorical training that participants believe prepared them to write their most valued genre. Multiple rhetorical training experiences prepare writers for the writing they value, and both students and alumni describe robust writing processes and appreciate feedback from others. Yet alumni continue to express challenges adapting writing for new audiences and genres.
Bleakney, Julia, Jessie L Moore, and Paula Rosinski, eds. 2022. Writing Beyond the University: Preparing Lifelong Learners for Lifewide Writing. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
Writing Beyond the University: Preparing Lifelong Learners for Lifewide Writing extends the burgeoning scholarly conversation regarding the role of writing in lifelong and lifewide learning. The collection introduces higher education faculty, staff, and administrators to research on how all members of a campus community can prepare learners to be effective writers beyond the university, in personal, professional, and civic contexts.
The collection also discusses how to teach writing and teach with writing across the academic disciplines and in a variety of co-curricular spaces, such as student life, student employment, and career services, and in internship, co-ops, and work-integrated learning opportunities.
Chapters include the perspectives of faculty/staff, learners, and alumni from a variety of international contexts, and chapter authors in our collection study and report on:
Available as an Open Access book at: https://doi.org/10.36284/celelon.oa5
Blythe, Stuart. 2012. "Prompting Student Reflection Through Audio-video Journals." Presentation at Conference on College Composition and Communication, Computer Connect Session, St. Louis, MO, March 2012.
Boone, Stephanie, Sara Biggs Chaney, Josh Compton, Cristiane Donahue, and Karen Gocsik. 2012. "Imagining a Writing and Rhetoric Program Based on Principles of Knowledge ‘Transfer': Dartmouth’s Institute for Writing and Rhetoric." Composition Forum 26. http://compositionforum.com/issue/26/dartmouth.php.
Boyd, Diane E. 2017. "Student drafting behaviors in and beyond the first-year seminar." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 103-112. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Boyd, Diane E. 2014. "Bottleneck Behaviours and Student Identities: Helping Novice Writers Develop in the First Year Seminar and Beyond." Presentation at Threshold Concepts in Practice, Durham, UK 2014.
Chiu, Scott C., Stacey Cozart, Ketevan Kupatadze, and Tine Wirenfeldt Jensen. 2014. "Opportunities and Challenges of Writing in a Second Language." Presentation at Writing Reseach Across Borders III, Paris, FR 2014.
Clark, Irene. 2014. "Fostering Transfer Across Writing Contexts: Genre Awareness as a Threshold Concept." Presentation at 12th International Writing Across the Curriculum Conference, Minneapolis, MN, July 12, 2014.
Clark, Irene. 2012. "Students’ Awareness of Genre and Rhetoric." Presentation at National Council of Teachers of English Conference, Las Vegas, NV, November 16, 2012.
Clark, Irene. 2012. "Academic Writing and Transferability: Print and New Media." Presentation at Council of Writing Program Administrators Conference, Albuquerque, NM, July 2012.
Clark, Irene. 2012. "Rhetorical Knowledge and Genre Awareness as Gateway to Transfer." Presentation at Conference on College Composition and Communication, St. Louis, MO, March 2012.
Clark, Irene, and Andrea Hernandez. 2011. "Genre Awareness, Academic Argument, and Transferability." The WAC Journal 22: 65-78. https://wac.colostate.edu/journal/vol22/clark.pdf.
DasBender, Gita. 2012. "Reflective Writing and Knowledge Transfer of Multilingual Students." Presentation at New Jersey College English Association (NJCEA) Conference, South Orange, NJ, April 14, 2012.
DasBender, Gita. 2012. "Explicit Teaching, Mindful Learning: Writing Knowledge and Skills Transfer of Multilingual Students in First-Year Writing." Presentation at Conference on College Composition and Communication, St. Louis, MO, March 24, 2012.
DePalma, Michael-John, Lilian W Mina, Kara Taczak, Michelle J Eady, Radhika Jaidev, and Ina Alexandra Machura. 2022. "Writing Across Professions (WAP): Fostering the Transfer of Writing Knowledge and Practices in Work Integrated Learning." In Writing Beyond the University Preparing Lifelong Learners for Lifewide Writing, edited by Julia Bleakney, Jessie L. Moore and Paula Rosinski, 91-107. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
The chapter authors offer Writing Across Professions as a curricular model that faculty and administrators in higher education can utilize to facilitate students’ transfer of writing knowledge and practices in the context of work-integrated learning.
Donahue, Christiane. 2014. "WAC, International Research, and ‘Transfer': Waves of Troublesome Knowledge." Presentation at 12th International Writing Across the Curriculum Conference, Minneapolis, MN, June 12, 2014.
Driscoll, Dana L. 2014. "Clashing Values: A Longitudinal, Exploratory Study of Student Beliefs about General Education, Vocationalism, and Transfer of Learning." Teaching & Learning Inquiry 2 (1): 21-37. http://tlijournal.com/tli/index.php/TLI/article/view/67/66.
Driscoll, Dana, Ed Jones, Carol Hayes, and Gwen Gorzelsky. 2013. "Promoting Transfer through Reflection: A Cross-Institutional Study of Metacognition, Identity, and Rhetoric." Presentation at Conference on College Composition and Communication, Las Vegas, NV, March 16, 2013.
Driscoll, Dana L., and Jennifer H. M. Wells. 2012. "Beyond Knowledge and Skills: Writing Transfer and the Role of Student Dispositions in and beyond the Writing Classroom." Composition Forum 26. http://compositionforum.com/issue/26/beyond-knowledge-skills.php.
Eady, Michelle J., Ina Alexandra Machura, Radhika Jaidev, Kara Taczak, Michael-John Depalma, and Lilian W. Mina. 2021. "Writing transfer and work-integrated learning in higher education: Transnational research across disciplines." International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning 22 (2): 183-197. https://www.ijwil.org/files/IJWIL_22_2_183_197.pdf.
From the published abstract: “This article explores ways that work-integrated learning (WIL) scholarship and the field of writing studies can benefit from intentional engagement in the context of transfer research. This conceptual paper foregrounds writing in WIL contexts, introduces writing transfer and its relationship to writing in WIL contexts, discusses conceptual
overlaps of writing transfer research and WIL, and suggests what writing transfer can mean for WIL practitioners. Overall, we argue that intentional engagement with writing transfer can enrich both WIL research and pedagogy.”
Farrell, Alison, and Sharon Tighe-Mooney. 2015. "Recall, Recognise, Re-Invent: The Value of Facilitating Writing Transfer in the Writing Centre Setting." Journal of Academic Writing 5 (2): 29-42.
Farrell, Alison, Sandra Kane, Steven P. Salchak, and Cecilia M. Dube. 2015. "Empowered empathetic encounters: Building international collaborations through researching writing in the context of South African higher education and beyond." South African Journal of Higher Education 29 (4): 96-113.
Farrell, Alison, Sandra Kane, Cecilia Dube, and Steve Salchak. 2017. "Rethinking the role of higher education in college preparedness and success from the perspective of writing transfer." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 81-92. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Felten, Peter. 2017. "Writing high-impact practices: Developing proactive knowledge in complex contexts." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 49-58. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Gebauer, Richard, Samantha Kramer, Margaret Leary, Tina Muller, John Sopper, and Mary Ellen Wade. 2019. "Exploring Integrative Learning Within Learning Communities." Presentation at Annual First-Year Experience Conference, Las Vegas, NV, February 2019.
Goldschmidt, Mary. 2017. "Promoting cross-disciplinary transfer: A case study in genre learning." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 122-130. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Goldschmidt, Mary. 2014. "Teaching Writing in the Disciplines: Student Perspectives on Learning Genre." Teaching & Learning Inquiry 2 (2): 25-40. http://tlijournal.com/tli/index.php/TLI/article/view/66/37.
Gorzelsky, Gwen, Carol Hayes, Ed Jones, and Dana Lynn Driscoll. 2017. "Cueing and adapting first-year writing knowledge: Support for transfer into disciplinary writing." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 113-121. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Hillard, Van E. 2012. "Intellectual Ethos as Transcendent Disposition." Presentation at South Atlantic Modern Language Association, Durham, NC, November 11, 2012.
Holmes, Ashley J, Kathleen Blake Yancey, Íde O'Sullivan, D. Alexis Hart, and Yogesh Sinha. 2022. "Lifewide Writing across the Curriculum: Valuing Students' Multiple Writing Lives Beyond the University." The WAC Journal 33: 32-61. https://doi.org/10.37514/WAC-J.2022.33.1.02.
Drawing on surveys, interviews, and maps collected from students at six institutions, this 2019-2021 research seminar team explores student writing lives within course-based, self-motivated, civic, internship, co-curricular, work-based, and other “spheres” of writing. Based on their analysis of students’ writing lives within and across these spheres, the authors advocate re-envisioning writing across the curriculum through a lifewide lens and fostering students’ agency as they continue to develop their lifewide writerly identities.
Kane, Sandra, and Cecilia Dube. 2012. "Perspectives from a South African University on Students’ Writing Apprehension, Attitudes to Writing and Performance." Presentation at International Writing Across the Curriculum Conference, Savannah, GA, June 9, 2012.
Kupatadze, Ketevan. 2012. "The Role of Students’ Attitudes Towards Foreign Language Writing and the Problems and Opportunities of Transfer." Presentation at South Atlantic Modern Language Association, Durham, NC, November 11, 2012.
Kupatadze, Ketevan, and Scott Chien-Hsiung Chiu. 2014. "Supporting Second/Foreign Language Writing in Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Academic Environments." Presentation at 12th International Writing Across the Curriculum Conference, Minneapolis, MN, June 14, 2014.
Leary, Margaret, Tina Muller, and Richard Gebauer. 2020. "Defining Academic and Student Affairs Collaboration in Residential Learning Communities." Presentation at ACHUO-I Virtual Academic Initiatives Conference, October 2020.
Leary, Margaret, Tina Muller, Samantha Kramer, John Sopper, Richard Gebauer, and Mary Ellen Wade. 2019. "Defining Academic and Student Affairs Collaboration in Residential Learning Communities." Presentation at Annual First-Year Experience Conference, Las Vegas, NV, February 2019.
Lomicka, Lara, and Jennifer Eidum. 2019. "Pathways to Thriving." Talking Stick November + December. http://read.nxtbook.com/acuhoi/talking_stick/november_december_2019/pathways_to_thriving.html.
Moore, Jessie L., and Randall Bass, eds. 2017. Understanding Writing Transfer: Implications for Transformative Student Learning in Higher Education. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.
Moore, Jessie L. 2017. "Five essential principles about writing transfer." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 1-12. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Moore, Jessie L., and Chris M. Anson. 2016/2017. "Introduction." In Critical transitions: Writing and the question of transfer, edited by Chris M. Anson and Jessie L. Moore, 3-13. Fort Collins, CO: The WAC Clearinghouse and University Press of Colorado.
Moore, Jessie L. 2014. "The Elon Statement on Writing Transfer and its Implications for WAC." Presentation at 12th International Writing Across the Curriculum Conference, Minneapolis, MN, June 13, 2014.
Moore, Jessie L. 2012. "Mapping the Questions: The State of Writing-Related Transfer Research." Composition Forum 26. http://compositionforum.com/issue/26/map-questions-transfer-research.php.
Moore, Jessie L. 2012. "Connecting Teacher-Scholars: Igniting Multi-Institutional Research through a Research Seminar." Presentation at National Council of Teachers of English Conference, Las Vegas, NV, November 16, 2012.
Moore, Jessie L. 2012. "A 20×20 Introduction to Writing Transfer Research." Presentation at South Atlantic Modern Language Association, Durham, NC, November 11, 2012.
Moore, Jessie L. 2012. "Connecting Localities with Multi-Institutional Research." Presentation at Council of Writing Program Administrators Conference, Albuquerque, NM, July 20, 2012.
Qualley, Donna, Justin Ericksen, Leon Erickson, Samuel Johnson, LeAnne Laux-Bachand, Michelle Magnero, and Aimee Odens. 2013. "(Re)Aligning Expectations: Graduate Student Teachers as Agents of Integration." Presentation at Conference on College Composition and Communication, Las Vegas, NV, March 2013.
Reid, Jennifer, Matthew Pavesich, Andrea Efthymiou, Heather Lindenman, and Dana Lynn Driscoll. 2022. "Writing to Learn Beyond the University: Preparing Lifelong Learners for Lifewide Writing." In Writing Beyond the University Preparing Lifelong Learners for Lifewide Writing, edited by Julia Bleakney, Jessie L Moore and Paula Rosinski, 38-50. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
This chapter explores how adults use writing in order to learn in contexts outside of work and school—which the authors term “self-sponsored writing to learn”—as well as how they manipulate the boundaries between these contexts.
Robertson, Liane, Kathleen Blake Yancey, and Kara Taczak. 2014. "Shifting Currents in Writing Instruction: Prior Knowledge and Transfer across the Curriculum." Presentation at 12th International Writing Across the Curriculum Conference, Minneapolis, MN, June 14, 2014.
Robertson, Liane, and Kara Taczak. 2017. "Teaching for transfer." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 93-102. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Robertson, Liane, Kara Taczak, and Kathleen Blake Yancey. 2012. "Notes Toward a Theory of Prior Knowledge and its Role in College Composers’ Transfer of Knowledge and Practice." Composition Forum 26. http://compositionforum.com/issue/26/prior-knowledge-transfer.php.
Robertson, Liane. 2012. "Connecting Content and Transfer in Teaching Writing across Contexts." Presentation at South Atlantic Modern Language Association, Durham, NC, November 11, 2012.
Taczak, Kara. 2012. "The Question of Transfer." Composition Forum 26. http://compositionforum.com/issue/26/question-of-transfer.php.
Taczak, Kara. 2012. "The Transfer of Transfer: Moving across Institutional Contexts." Presentation at South Atlantic Modern Language Association, Durham, NC, November 11, 2012.
Wade, Mary Ellen, Richie Gebauer, John Sopper, Tina M. Muller, Samantha Kramer, and Margaret Leary. 2021. "Designing an Instrument to Measure Student Perceptions of Integrative Learning: Operationalizing AAC&U’s Integrative Learning VALUE Rubric." College Teaching. https://doi.org/10.1080/87567555.2021.1909525.
Wardle, Elizabeth, and Nicolette Mercer Clement. 2017. ""The hardest thing with writing is not getting enough instruction": Helping educators guide students through writing challenges." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 131-143. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Wardle ., Elizabeth. 2012. "Creative Repurposing for Expansive Learning: Considering ‘Problem-Exploring’ and ‘Answer-Getting’ Dispositions in Individuals and Fields." Composition Forum 26.
Wells, Jennifer, Ed Jones, and Dana Driscoll. 2012. "Opening Gateways Across the Curriculum: Writing about Writing and Transfer in High School and College Courses." Presentation at Conference on College Composition and Communication, St. Louis, MO, March 22, 2012.
Werder, Carmen M. 2017. "Telling expectations about academic writing: If not working, what about knotworking?" In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 69-78. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Werder, Carmen. 2013. "Misaligned Expectations: How They Work as Agents of Disintegration." Presentation at Conference on College Composition and Communication, Las Vegas, NV, March 16, 2013.
Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte, Stacey Cozart, Tine Wirenfeldt Jensen, and Gry Sandholm Jensen. 2013. "Grappling with identity issues: Danish graduate student views on writing in L2 English." Presentation at The English in Europe (EiE) conference on the English language in teaching in European higher education, Copenhagen, DK, April 19-21, 2013.
Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte, Stacey Cozart, Tine Wirenfeldt Jensen, and Gry Sandholm Jensen. 2012. "Writing in English is like being married to somebody you don’t know very well: Postgraduate writing in L2 English." Presentation at The NIC Conference on Intercultural Communication, Aarhus, DK 2012.
Yakovchuk, Nadya, Ryan Dippre, Lucie Dvorakova, Alison Farrell, Niamh Fortune, and Melissa Weresh. 2022. "Writing Transitions Between Academic and Professional Settings." In Writing Beyond the University Preparing Lifelong Learners for Lifewide Writing, edited by Julia Bleakney, Jessie L Moore and Paula Rosinski, 186-204. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
Drawing on data from three higher education institutions in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Ireland, the authors explore how students in varied pre-placement learning contexts (a graduate-level law school, an undergraduate education program, and an undergraduate nursing, midwifery, and paramedic science program) make sense of the writing demands they will face in their placements.
Yancey, Kathleen Blake. 2017. "Writing, transfer, and ePortfolios: A possible trifecta in supporting student learning." In Understanding writing transfer: Implications for transformative student learning in higher education, edited by Jessie L. Moore and Randall Bass, 39-48. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Yancey, Kathleen B., Liane Robertson, and Kara Taczak. 2014. Writing across Contexts: Transfer, Composition, and Sites of Writing. Boulder, CO: Utah State UP.
Yancey, Kathleen Blake, D. Alexis Hart, Ahsley J. Holmes, Anna V. Knutston, Íde O'Sullivan, and Yogesh Sinha. 2022. "“There is a Lot of Overlap”: Tracing Writing Development Across Spheres of Writing." In Writing Beyond the University Preparing Lifelong Learners for Lifewide Writing, edited by Julia Bleakney, Jessie L Moore and Paula Rosinski, 74-90. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
Asking students who have completed first-year writing about the contexts in which they write (including classrooms, workplaces, cocurriculars, and internships) and their understandings of relationships between and across these contexts, the research team examines the complex relationships between and among these different contexts, what the authors call “recursivities.”
Benjamin, Mimi, Jody Jessup-Anger, Shannon Lundeen, and Cara Lucia. 2020. "Notes for this Special Issue." Learning Communities Research and Practice (LCRP) 8 (1). https://washingtoncenter.evergreen.edu/lcrpjournal/vol8/iss1/1.
Eidum, Jennifer, Lara Lomicka, Ghada Endick, Warren Chiang, and Jill Stratton. 2020. "Thriving in Residential Learning Communities." Learning Communities Research and Practice (LCRP) 8 (7). https://washingtoncenter.evergreen.edu/lcrpjournal/vol8/iss1/7.
Eidum, Jennifer E., and Lara Lomicka. 2023. The Faculty Factor: Developing Faculty Engagement with Living-Learning Communities. Elon, NC: The Center for Engaged Learning.
This edited collection examines how colleges and universities foster sustainable faculty involvement in living learning communities (LLCs). More specifically, chapter authors contemplate the question: Why do faculty in LLCs matter, now and in the future? We argue that faculty are an essential component of LLC success. This volume delivers evidence-based research, as well as practical examples and voices from the field, to guide and support faculty serving in different capacities in LLCs, to serve as a resource for student affairs practitioners collaborating with faculty in residential environments, and to offer guidance to administrators developing new and revising existing LLC programs.
Gebauer, Richie, Mary Ellen Wade, Tina Muller, Samantha Kramer, Margaret Leary, and John Sopper. 2020. "Unique Strategies to Foster Integrative Learning in Residential Learning Communities." Learning Communities Research and Practice (LCRP) 8 (9). https://washingtoncenter.evergreen.edu/lcrpjournal/vol8/iss1/9.
Leibowitz, Justin B., Charity Fiene Lovitt, and Craig S. Seager. 2020. "Development and Validation of a Survey to Assess Belonging, Academic Engagement, and Self-Efficacy in STEM RLCs." Learning Communities Research and Practice (LCRP) 8 (3). https://washingtoncenter.evergreen.edu/lcrpjournal/vol8/iss1/3.
Lomicka, Lara, Warren Chiang, Jennifer Eidum, Ghada Endick, and Jill Stratton. 2019. "What Components Contribute to Thriving in Residential Learning Communities?" Paper at First Year Experience Conference, Las Vegas, NV 2019.
Lomicka, Lara, Warren Chiang, Jennifer Eidum, Ghada Endick, and Jill Stratton. 2019. "Thriving in Residential Learning communities: The Role of Faculty Involvement." Poster at Residential Learning Communities as a High-Impact Practice Conference, Elon, NC 2019.
Lomicka, Lara, Warren Chiang, Jennifer Eidum, Ghada Endick, and Jill Stratton. 2019. "Thriving in Residential Learning Communities: An investigation of student characteristics and RLC types." Paper at Residential Learning Communities as a High-Impact Practice Conference, Elon, NC 2019.
Sriram, Rishi, Joseph Cheatle, Christopher P. Marquart, Joseph L. Murray, and Susan D. Weintraub. 2020. "The Development and Validation of an Instrument Measuring Academic, Social, and Deeper Life Interactions." Journal of College Student Development 61 (2): 240-45. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/752979.
Sriram, Rishi, Cliff Haynes, Susan D. Weintraub, Joseph Cheatle, Christopher P. Marquart, and Joseph L. Murray. 2020. "Student Demographics and Experiences of Deeper Life Interactions within Residential Learning Communities." Learning Communities Research and Practice (LCRP) 8 (8). https://washingtoncenter.evergreen.edu/lcrpjournal/vol8/iss1/8.
Ash, Sarah L., and Patti H. Clayton. 2004. "The Articulated Learning: An approach to Guided Reflection and Assessment." Innovative Higher Education 29 (2): 137-154.
Reflection is an integral aspect of service-learning, but it does not simply happen by telling students to reflect. This paper describes the risks involved in poor quality reflection and explains the results of rigorous reflection. A rigorous reflection framework is introduced that involves objectively describing an experience, analyzing the experience, and then articulating learning outcomes according to guiding questions.
Celio, Christine I., Joseph Durlak, and Allison Dymnicki. 2011. "A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Service-Learning on Students." Journal of Experiential Education 34 (2): 164-181.
For those seeking empirical data regarding the value of service-learning, this meta-analysis provides considerable evidence. Representing data from 11,837 students, this meta-analysis of 62 studies identified five areas of gain for students who took service-learning courses as compared to control groups who did not. The students in service-learning courses demonstrated significant gains in their self-esteem and self-efficacy, educational engagement, altruism, cultural proficiency, and academic achievement. Studies of service-learning courses that implemented best practices (e.g., supporting students in connecting curriculum with the service, incorporating the voice of students in the service-learning project, welcoming community involvement in the project, and requiring reflection) had higher effect sizes.
Cress, Christine M., Peter J. Collier, Vicki L. Reitenauer, and Associates, eds. 2013. Learning through Service: A Student Guidebook for Service-Learning and Civic Engagement across Academic Disciplines and Cultural Communities, 2nd ed. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC.
Although written for students to promote an understanding of their community service through reflection and their personal development as citizens who share expertise with compassion, this text is also useful for faculty. Among the many topics addressed, it provides descriptions of service-learning and civic engagement, explains how to establish and deepen community partnerships, and challenges students to navigate difference in ways that unpack privilege and analyze power dynamics that often surface in service-learning and civic engagement. Written in an accessible style, it is good first text for learning about service-learning and civic engagement.
Delano-Oriaran, Omobolade, Marguerite W Penick-Parks, and Suzanne Fondrie, eds. 2015. The SAGE Sourcebook of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
This tome contains 58 chapters on a variety of aspects related to service-learning and civic engagement. The intended audience is faculty in higher education and faculty in P-12 schools, as well as directors of service-learning or civic engagement centers in universities or school districts. The SAGE Sourcebook of Service-Learning and Civic Engagement outlines several theoretical models on the themes of service-learning and civic engagement, provides guides that faculty can employ when developing service-learning projects, shares ideas for program development, and offers numerous resources that faculty can use. Parts I – IV of the sourcebook are directed toward general information about service-learning and civic engagement, including aspects of implementation; parts V – VIII describe programs and issues related to the use of service-learning or civic engagement within disciplines or divisions; part IX addresses international service-learning; and part X discusses sustainability.
Felten, Peter, and Patti H. Clayton. 2011. "Service-Learning." New Directions for Teaching and Learning 128: 75-84. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/tl.470.
Felten and Clayton define service-learning, describe its essential aspects, and review the empirical evidence supporting this pedagogy. Both affective and cognitive aspects of growth are examined in their review. The authors conclude that effectively designed service-learning has considerable potential to promote transformation for all involved, including those who mentor students during the service-learning experience.
Hatcher, Julie A., and Morgan L. Struder. 2015. "Service-learning and philanthropy: Implications for course design." Theory Into Practice 54 (1): 11-19.
Historically, universities have lauded their role in developing citizens who contribute to the public good. Every community needs citizens who are knowledgeable about local issues of inequity and who are willing to work with others to advocate for and help bring about positive social change related to those issues. This article examines the influence of service-learning experiences in fostering philanthropy and civic activity that continues after graduation. Five suggestions are made for tailoring service-learning such that students can eventually become civic-minded graduates.
Jacoby, Barbara. 2015. Service-learning essentials: Questions, answers and lessons learned. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Arranged as a series of questions and answers about service-learning, this text shares research and the author’s personal wisdom gathered over decades of experience in service-learning. Faculty members who are new to service-learning will learn the basics of this pedagogy. Those with experience will discover ways to refine and improve their implementation of service-learning. All aspects of service-learning are clearly explained in this accessible text, including advise for overcoming obstacles.
Jones, Susan R. 2002. "The Underside of Service-Learning." About Campus 7 (4): 10-15.
Although an older publication, this article is not outdated. Jones describes how some students resist examining assumptions and refuse to see how their beliefs perpetuate negative stereotypes. These students challenge both the faculty member teaching the service-learning course and classmates. Jones discusses the need for faculty to anticipate how to respond to students’ racist or homophobic comments in a way that acknowledges where the students are developmentally, while also honoring the complexity involved. Additionally, the author recommends that faculty examine their own background and level of development relative to issues of privilege and power that can arise in service-learning pedagogy.
McDonald, James, and Lynn Dominguez. 2015. "Developing University and Community Partnerships: A Critical Piece of Successful Service Learning." Journal of College Science Teaching 44 (3): 52-56.
Developing a positive partnership with a community organization is a critical aspect service-learning. McDonald and Dominguez discuss best practice for service-learning and explain a framework for developing a successful partnership in the community. Faculty need to
Two service-learning projects, one for an environmental course and another for an elementary methods science course, are described along with the positive outcomes for students and community partners.
Steinberg, Kathryn S., Julie A. Hatcher, and Robert G. Bringle. 2011. "Civic-minded graduate: A north star." Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning 18 (1): 19-33.
Based on a review of literature for civic learning outcomes, the authors of this article propose a model for a civic-minded graduate, which involves the intersection of identify, educational experiences, and civic experiences within a cultural and social context. The authors then outline ten domains of civic learning outcomes organized according to knowledge, skills, dispositions, and behavioral intentions. All ten of the domains are manifest in literature on service-learning and civic engagement. The authors describe the instruments used to measure the civic-minded graduate construct and three studies conducted for the purpose of establishing validity of this construct. The article concludes with implications for practice in programs designed to promote civic development, using the construct of a civic-minded graduate as a metaphorical north star.
Bovill, Catherine, and Catherine Bulley. 2011. "A model of active student participation in curriculum design: exploring desirability and possibility." In Improving Student Learning (ISL) 18: Global Theories and Local Practices: Institutional, Disciplinary and Cultural Variations, edited by Chris Rust, 176-188. Oxford: Oxford Brookes University Centre for Staff and Learning Development.
The authors explore the desirability and possibility of active student participation (ASP) in curriculum design. They offer the description of the levels or forms of ASP in curriculum design by adapting Sherry Arnstein’s (1969) ladder model of citizen participation from community planning literature.
The adapted ladder is of particular interest to anyone willing to experiment with active student participation in either planning the entire curriculum, course or modifying some aspects of the course or assignment(s). Although the concept of a ladder might suggest that what’s on upper level is to be considered better, the authors say that this is not the case. Different levels of student participation depend on particular circumstances, faculty goals, etc. depending on institutional setting, faculty member’s comfort level with inviting students to collaborate on course design, the level of maturity and expertise of student body, they further argue that it might be desirable to increase active student participation slowly and in stages (p. 183).
Bovill and Bulley also give specific examples of what each ladder of ASP might look like in practice. For example, ‘Partnership – a negotiated curriculum’ could be “student experience and work used as basis for curriculum; students actively and meaningfully negotiating curriculum with tutor” (p. 181); ‘Students in control’ might involve “Student designed learning outcomes and projects. Student led journal clubs, student led journals” (p. 181). They also acknowledge that “[l]ocating examples of this top rung is challenging within the current higher education context, where our systems of quality assurance require courses to be validated and reviewed on the basis of clear intended learning outcomes and assessments”(p. 181).
As we implement more practices involving students as partners in curriculum design and development, the authors also note that there has to be more research done and evidence collected that evaluates the outcomes from different levels of ASP, as well as faculty and student experiences with partnership and its implications (p. 184).
Bovill, Cathy, and C J Bulley. 2011. "A model of active student participation in curriculum design: exploring desirability and possibility." In Improving Student Learning (ISL) 18: Global Theories and Local Practices: Institutional, Disciplinary and Cultural Variations, edited by C Rust, 176-188. Oxford: Oxford Brookes University Center for Staff and Learning Development.
The authors of the article explore the desirability and possibility of active student participation (ASP) in curriculum design. They offer the description of the levels or forms of ASP in curriculum design by adapting Sherry Arnstein’s (1969) ladder model of citizen participation from community planning literature.
The adapted ladder is of particular interest to anyone willing to experiment with active student participation in either planning the entire curriculum, course or modifying some aspects of the course or assignment(s). Although the concept of a ladder might suggest that what’s on upper level is to be considered better, the authors say that this is not the case. Different levels of student participation depend on particular circumstances, faculty goals, etc. depending on institutional setting, faculty member’s comfort level with inviting students to collaborate on course design, the level of maturity and expertise of student body, they further argue that it might be desirable to increase active student participation slowly and in stages (8).
Bovill and Bulley also give specific examples of what each ladder of ASP might look like in practice. For example, ‘Partnership – a negotiated curriculum’ could be “student experience and work used as basis for curriculum; students actively and meaningfully negotiating curriculum with tutor” (6); ‘Students in control’ might involve “Student designed learning outcomes and projects. Student led journal clubs, student led journals” (6). They also acknowledge that “[l]ocating examples of this top rung is challenging within the current higher education context, where our systems of quality assurance require courses to be validated and reviewed on the basis of clear intended learning outcomes and assessments”(6).
As we implement more practices involving students as partners in curriculum design and development, the authors also note that there has to be more research done and evidence collected that evaluates the outcomes from different levels of ASP, as well as faculty and student experiences with partnership and its implications (9).
Cook-Sather, Alison, and Zanny Alter. 2011. "What Is and What Can Be: How a Liminal Position Can Change Learning and Teaching in Higher Education." Anthropology & Education Quarterly 42 (1): 37-53.
Alison Cook-Sather and Zanny Alter focus on student experiences as pedagogical consultants in a faculty development program at Bryn Mawr and Haverford Colleges. The authors claim that this type of collaboration between student consultants, faculty and undergraduate students enrolled in a course has “the potential to transform deep-seated societal understandings of education based on traditional hierarchies and teacher/student distinctions” (p. 37). Cook-Sather and Alter borrow anthropological concept of liminality and revise it as “a threshold between and among clearly established roles at which one can linger, from which one can depart and to which one can return” (p. 38) to describe the shift in the relationship between faculty and students and emphasize the fact that having students as educational consultants falls outside of all previously established roles and categories in higher education system.
The context of Cook-Sather and Alter’s study is Bryn Mawr and Haverford Colleges’ Student as Learners and Teachers (SaLT) program, which employs students as pedagogical consultants to faculty. Both students and faculty go through an established training process. The authors report several important changes in both, students’ and faculty’s perception of teaching and learning, as well as the relationship between them, as a result of the experience:
In conclusion, the authors argue that such partnerships have a potential to move us toward a more democratic education: the potential to generate a democratic dialogue about teaching and learning between students and faculty.
Cook-Sather, Alison, Cathy Bovill, and Peter Felten. 2014. Engaging students as partners in learning and teaching: a guide for faculty. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
This book written by Alison Cook-Sather, Catherine Bovill and Peter Felten is an invaluable guide for everybody who wishes to develop student-faculty partnership in higher education institutions. Student-faculty partnership is a relatively new concept that recently has gained much popularity in the US and internationally. The authors of Engaging Students as Partners in Learning and teaching: A Guide for Faculty offer theoretical framework for developing such partnerships combined with very practical guidelines for those interested in developing small or large scale partnerships between faculty and students. The authors do an exceptional job of combining theory with practice, grounding their ideas on evidence-based pedagogy, while offering many practical examples for those who are thinking of developing small-scale partnerships with students in their courses or large-scale partnerships on the departmental and university levels.
Starting with the basic question of how faculty together with students can deepen learning, Cook-Sather, Bovill and Felten offer a compelling analysis of the nature of student-faculty partnerships, the reasons for faculty and for students to embark on such endeavor, and the essential elements for such partnership to be successful. When defining partnership, the authors maintain that there are three important principles to be taken into account: respect, reciprocity and responsibility. All of these basic characteristics of successful partnership set faculty and students up for developing trusting and respectful relationships, for sharing not only power, but also risks and responsibilities for learning.
Cook-Sather, Bovill, and Felten also recognize the challenges that this type of partnership between faculty and students faces serious challenges in the higher education system in the US and internationally. One of the most interesting claims they make is that such partnership destabilizes the consumerist model of higher education, in which students assume passive role in their process of education being on the receiving side of the expertise that faculty share with them. Unlike this model, faculty-student partnership allows students to have an active role in this process, designing not only what but also how they wish to learn. Such a change in students’ role promotes student engagement resulting in improved learning.
In various chapters of the book, the authors provide the definition, as well as guiding principles of student-faculty partnerships; answer questions and address concerns of the faculty who might wish to initiate a partnership of this kind; offer various examples of small and large-scale partnerships based on the needs, as well as resources available for individual faculty and for administrators, departments and universities; and detailed guidelines, combined with many examples, for initiating successful student-faculty partnerships on course design, curriculum development and pedagogy.
Cook-Sather, Alison, and Peter Felten. 2017. "Ethics of academic leadership: Guiding learning and teaching." In Cosmopolitan perspectives on academic leadership in higher education, edited by Feng Su and Margaret Wood, 175-191. London: Bloomsbury.
In this article, Cook-Sather and Felten draw on Appiah’s ‘rooted’ (2005) and Hansen’s ‘embodied’ (2014) cosmopolitanism to argue that academic leadership of current higher education system should not aim for some sort of uniform and universal values, but rather embrace the differences of the people and the circumstances of local environments. Leadership should consider partnership, and reciprocity upon which partnership is based, as fundamental for its success (p. 175). The authors recognize from the start that the ethics of reciprocity and partnership challenge western higher education system and that they, by proposing it, work against current dominant model(s) of the system. Quoting Hansen (2014, p. 4), Cook-Sather and Felten agree that education should cultivate “moral sympathies, deepened democratic dispositions, and a serious sense of responsibility for the world,” but instead, as it is practiced today, it functions as a way of “training human capital” for national and multinational economic markets (p. 177). Using Walker’s (2009) description, they argue that by today’s academic leadership education is perceived as “an instrumental investment to improve productivity, […] and its] interactions are reduced to profit-seeking exchanges (p. 177).
As a counterpoint to such “dehumanized” education system, Cook-Sather and Felten employ Nixon’s “ethics of connectivity” (2012), according to which certain fundamental changes should be introduced to the education system in order to bring the ‘human’ element back into focus: it should redirect its attention at the process of teaching and learning; let go of ‘learning outcomes’ since the value of learning lies in its un-determinability, in the open, unknown outcome of the process ([education] “constitutes an uncharted, unpredictable journey into self-awareness, self-understanding, and knowledge of the world in which we live”(p. 179)); and try to develop an inclusive and collaborative relationship between teachers and students (p. 178).
Cook-Sather and Felten focus on three major concepts that should define future education philosophy: liminality, reciprocity and partnership. They employ the term ‘liminal’ or ‘liminality’ to describe an ideal space for higher education institutions. It is a stance, that in their opinion and when taken willingly (not as an imposition), embraces ambiguity, marginality and in-betweenness. It refuses to adhere to “classifications that normally locate states and positions in cultural space” (p. 181). When positioned in a liminal space, one acquires a unique opportunity to challenge the assumptions that had turned into unquestionable and unquestioned truths though time. They write that when someone is in a liminal space, they are “ambiguous, neither here not there, betwixt and between all fixed points of pure possibility whence novel configurations of ideas and relations may arise” (p. 181). The concept of reciprocity, as described by the authors, entails “balanced give-and-take” (p. 181), although both sides might and should have different things to offer and to contribute. The difference in experiences and perspectives is not diminished in the process, but rather acquires a heightened value. Thus, education can become a perpetual dialogue between equal, but diverse parties that collectively share responsibility (p. 182). When it comes to partnership, Cook-Sather and Felten reiterate their definition of it stating that it is “a collaborative, reciprocal process through which all participants have the opportunity to contribute equally, although not necessarily in the same ways, to curricular or pedagogical conceptualization, decision making, implementation, investigation, or analysis” (p. 182).
Connecting these concepts back to cosmopolitanism, Cook-Sather and Felten remind us of the original Greek use of the term ‘kosmopolites’, meaning the ‘citizen of the world’ and referring to one’s obligation and responsibility towards all humans and their allegiance to humanity. But, also propose to consider the local realities, local interests, contexts and settings, following Appiah’s philosophy of ‘rooted’ cosmopolitanism in which there is no tension between the universal and the local. Viewing ‘unfinishedness’ as the very quality of education, of what “makes us educable” (p. 186), Cook-Sather and Felten propose that the leadership be open to new ideas, values and practices; that they reconsider education as a space of encounter, of a dialogue though which one acquires new identity, but this very identity is undetermined and can never be predicted.
Alison Cook-Sather and Zanny Alter focus on student experiences as pedagogical consultants in a faculty development program at Bryn Mawr and Haverford Colleges. The authors claim that this type of collaboration between student consultants, faculty and undergraduate students enrolled in a course has “the potential to transform deep-seated societal understandings of education based on traditional hierarchies and teacher/student distinctions” (37). Cook-Sather and Alter borrow anthropological concept of liminality and revise it as “a threshold between and among clearly established roles at which one can linger, from which one can depart and to which one can return,” (38) to describe the shift in the relationship between faculty and students and emphasize the fact that having students as educational consultants falls outside of all previously established roles and categories in higher education system.
The context of Cook-Sather and Alter’s study is Bryn Mawr and Haverford Colleges’ Student as Learners and Teachers (SaLT) program, which employs students as pedagogical consultants to faculty. Both students and faculty go through an established training process. The authors report several important changes in both, students’ and faculty’s perception of teaching and learning, as well as the relationship between them, as a result of the experience: a) it prompts literal and metaphorical (re)positioning of the student consultants in the classroom, changing their perspective on learning and teaching, as well as their traditional roles as students; b) It exposes the participants to ambiguity and vulnerability, which in the end helps in developing the capacity to be between “all fixed points of classification” (48); c) Student consultants report becoming better students as they are able to understand better the professors’ perspectives and goals and experience deeper learning as a result of being exposed to multiple angles; d) Faculty report being more willing to shift their teaching and more open to a dialogue with students; move towards less hierarchical and more dialogic understanding of teaching and learning; e) Students report being willing to take more responsibility for their education and active participants in their education.
This study written by Alison Cook-Sather, Catherine Bovill and Peter Felten is an invaluable guide for everybody who wishes to develop student-faculty partnership in higher education institutions. Student-faculty partnership is a relatively new concept that recently has gained much popularity in the US and internationally. The authors of Engaging Students as Partners in Learning and teaching: A Guide for Faculty offer theoretical framework for developing such partnerships combined with very practical guidelines for those interested in developing small or large scale partnerships between faculty and students. The authors do an exceptional job of combining theory with practice, grounding their ideas on evidence-based pedagogy, while offering many practical examples for those who are thinking of developing small-scale partnerships with students in their courses or large-scale partnerships on the departmental and university levels.
Cook-Sather, Bovill, and Felten also recognize the challenges that this type of partnership between faculty and students faces serious challenges in the higher education system in the US and internationally. One of the most interesting claims they make is that such partnership destabilizes the consumerist model of higher education, in which students assume passive role in their process of education being on the receiving side of the expertize that faculty share with them. Unlike this model, faculty-student partnership allows students to have an active role in this process, designing not only what but also how they whish to learn. Such a change in students’ role promotes student engagement resulting in improved learning.
Healey, Mick, Abbi Flint, and Kathy Harrington. 2014. Engagement through partnership: Students as partners in learning and teaching in higher education. York: Higher Education Academy.
Writing primarily for the teaching faculty in higher education institutions worldwide with interest in engaging students as partners in learning and teaching, as well as for the administrative staff willing to develop institutional culture of partnership, Mick Healey, Abbi Flint, and Kathy Harrington’s Report titled Engagement through partnership: students as partners in learning and teaching in higher education (2014) claims that developing partnerships between faculty and students in the area of teaching and learning is a pedagogically sound endeavor for it generates student engagement and, consequently, delivers better learning experience.
As authors make a pedagogical case for developing student-faculty partnerships in learning and teaching in higher education, they offer a conceptual model for exploring the areas in which students and faculty can work together; outline the models for sustainable and successful partnerships; identify tensions that might arise with the shifts in power relationships, risk-taking, the development of trust, etc.; and, identify areas for further research.
Healey, Flint and Harrington view student-faculty partnership as a process rather than goal and outcomes driven activity and, as such, one that has the potential to dramatically transform the purpose and structure of higher education that is largely based on delivering results in the form of outcomes through assessment. The authors maintain that unlike the current model that is end-oriented, the student-faculty partnership is pedagogy that is “(radically) open to and creating possibilities for discovering and learning something that cannot be known beforehand” (p. 9).
Manor, Christopher, Stephen Bloch-Shulman, Kelly Flannery, and Peter Felten. 2010. "Foundations of Student-Faculty Partnerships in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning." In Engaging Students Voices in the Study of Teaching and Learning, edited by Carmen Werder and Megan Otis, 3-15. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
The authors begin by outlining some of the shortcomings of the traditional instructional model in higher education, arguing that in this model students feel powerless, as if decisions were made for them instead of by them. Professors are viewed as the only experts in the room, developing in students a fundamental misconception about teaching and learning as a process through which knowledge is transferred from one to another, rather than a process during which meaning is co-constructed. Such misconception also devalues the opinions and the input of their peers, whose thoughts are dismissed as irrelevant and unimportant. All of this in the end translates into student disengagement with the process of learning, with the material and with their peers.
This traditional model of education is challenged by student-faculty partnership on the scholarship of teaching and learning. Through partnership, students acquire voice and with it, a greater responsibility for their education. Simultaneously, faculty is prompted to listen to student voices and accommodate them, relinquishing the authority that was previously assumed and unquestioned. Hence, partnership causes decentralization and disaggregation of the classroom as power is now shared between the instructor and the students, which in itself, fosters a more democratic model of teaching and learning.
From the SoTL perspective, student-faculty partnerships shift the focus from teaching (faculty) to learning (students) and allow students to ask questions related to SoTL research.
Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy, Sam L. Drovakova, Kelly E. Matthews, Sofia Abbot, Breagh Cheng, Peter Felten, and Kelly Swaim. 2017. "A Systematic Literature Review of Students as Partners in Higher Education." International Journal for Students as Partners 1 (2): 1-23.
In this comprehensive literature review on the subject of Students as Partners (SaP) Mercer-Mapstone et al. are guided by an overarching question about “[h]ow are “students as partners” practices in higher education presented in the academic literature” (p. 4). The article offers a comprehensive analysis of the percentage of publications authored by faculty/academic staff, undergraduate students, and post doctoral researchers; percentage of publications coming from specific disciplines, as well as the types of partnerships frequently undertaken, a detailed and clear picture of the positive and, in some cases, negative, outcomes of student-faculty engagement, and finally, proposes areas within the subject of student-faculty partnership for further investigation and development.
The authors also address some of the major characteristics of student-faculty partnerships, highlighting the importance of reciprocity in the relationship, which can be understood as a form of shared responsibility in the process of learning, shared goals and risks, viewing students as co-learners and/or colleagues, i.e. a relationship that destabilizes the traditional power hierarchy between the faculty and students. Interestingly, the authors conclude that the analysis of current scholarship about subject of student-faculty partnerships shows that this does not always translate into shared authorship: the vast majority of research published on the topic of SaP is authored primarily by faculty, concluding that “[w]hile our literature review captured a plethora of SaP practices premised on the ideals of reciprocity and shared responsibility, the artifacts (publications) of those interactions tended to be staff-centric” (p. 14).
Werder, Carmen, Shevell Thibou, and Blair Kaufer. 2012. "Students as co-inquirers: A requisite threshold Concept in educational development." Journal of Faculty Development 26 (3): 34-38.
This essay describes Carmen Werder’s, Shevell Thibou’s and Blair Kaufer’s experiences with student-faculty collaborations on course and curricular development and the ways in which these experiences have been transformational for each. This is one of the few studies co-authored by a faculty member, a graduate student and an undergraduate student who participated in student-faculty collaborative process on curricular development. The process was part of the Teaching-Learning Academy (TLA) at Western Washington University. As the authors state, the essay “explores how partnering with students to study teaching and learning constitutes a threshold concept that is transformational, irreversible, and discursive”(p. 34).
The authors consider student-faculty partnership to be “threshold learning” because it opens up new and previously unconceivable ways of understanding something. After the experience with such partnership, both students and faculty comment that there is no way back for them. Students have developed a new and different understanding of their learning and are more enthusiastic, more motivated to learn. They comment that learning, as a result of the partnership, has started to excite them as it turned into a dialogic and community building activity, creating a welcoming space for faculty and students to share freely what they thought and/or knew.
As the authors reflect on their experience, they point out several important shifts in their understanding of teaching and learning that seem transformational. They start to: a) understand learning as a dialogic experience that is divergent and difference driven; b) question the power structure and the hierarchical dynamics inherent in contemporary education system that make it difficult for students to be active learners; and c) value equality that comes with partnership and that enables all participants to have a voice in the decision making process.
Bauer, Karen W., and Joan S. Bennett. 2003. "Alumni perceptions used to assess undergraduate research experience." The Journal of Higher Education 74: 210-230. https://doi.org/10.1353/jhe.2003.0011.
Past studies have examined current students’ perceptions of UR. These authors asked University of Delaware alumni about their participation in a number of campus activities, including UR. They were asked to rate whether their skills were enhanced because of their undergraduate degree on 32 items (e.g., write effectively, use statistics or math formulas, carry out research, maintain openness to new ideas, etc.). Some participants had participated in the university’s formal UR program (URP alumni), some stated they had engaged in UR but were not in the formal program (self-reported UR), and some had not engaged in UR (non-research alumni). URP alumni reported the most benefits from engaging in UR when compared to the other two groups, particularly for those who had completed a senior thesis. Both research groups stated that they were better able to carry out research than the non-research alumni group, with the highest scores from the URP alumni. URP alumni also scored higher than non-research alumni on other skills like intellectual curiosity, acquiring information independently, acting as a leader, and speaking effectively. For all alumni who engaged in research, those who participated for longer expressed greater benefit from the experience. UR had clear benefits for students as measured by their attitudes and self-reported skills.
Gilmore, Joanna, Michelle Vieyra, Briana Timmerman, David Feldon, and Michelle Maher. 2015. "The relationship between undergraduate research participation and subsequent research performance of early career STEM graduate students." The Journal of Higher Education 86: 834-863.
While many studies on the benefits of UR have used self-report measures, this study used research skill performance in graduate school as its main measure. All students were first year graduate students in a STEM program. They wrote research proposals at the beginning and end of their first year of graduate school. Some of these students had engaged in UR as undergraduates and some had not. Two trained raters independently evaluated the proposals using a pre-established rubric (composed of four subscales) and inter-rater reliability was high. On the pre-proposal, students with UR experience outperformed those without UR experience on 3 of the 4 subscales (Data Presentation, Results, Total Score). On the post-proposal, students with UR also outperformed the other group on all parts of the rubric except Introduction and Context. The authors underscored the importance of UR for successful graduate school performance.
Kinkead, Joyce. 2003. "Learning through inquiry: An overview of undergraduate research." New Directions for Teaching and Learning 93: 5-17.
Kinkead (2003) defined UR, explored its importance in the undergraduate experience, and identified key UR programs at various institutions. She noted that although the elite students (honors) are typically engaged in UR, at risk and underrepresented students also benefit from engaging in UR. Kinkead (2003) also discussed institutional UR issues like administration, funding, and resources.
Lopatto, David. 2007. "Undergraduate research experiences support science career decisions and active learning." CBE-Life Sciences Education 6: 297-306. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.07-06-0039.
Students engaging in summer research completed the SURE (Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences) and an altered version again 9 months later to see if their perceptions changed over time. Students reported similar gains on both surveys on items like understanding of the research process and readiness for more demanding research. Some participants engaged in summer research programs away from their home institutions. These students reported higher scores on clarifying their career path, science writing skills, and self-confidence. These students were also more likely to finish their research project in the summer when compared to students who stayed at their own campus. Minority students reported similar gains (if not greater gains) than other students. Further, a comparison of summer survey and follow-up survey results showed that student perceptions were stable over time. The author concluded with a discussion of methodological issues in UR research.
Lopatto, David. 2010. "Undergraduate research as a high-impact student experience." Peer Review 12.
Lopatto (2010) described the benefits of UR and that standardized measures of those benefits can be accomplished using online assessments like the SURE survey. He also discussed the importance of a research community that can include peer mentors. The author also focused on the importance of integrating UR into the curriculum during the academic year. One potential model is CURE. He concluded with a discussion of future directions that includes interdisciplinary research.
Russell, Susan H., Mary P. Hancock, and James McCullough. 2007. "Benefits of undergraduate research experiences." Science 316: 548-549.
The authors’ paper focused on UR in the sciences and included surveys of 15,000 students and mentors. They found that UR students are demographically diverse, are mostly juniors and seniors, have higher GPAs, and are more likely to want to obtain a higher degree than non-researchers. The authors described several positive outcomes of engaging in UR, including increased confidence and a clarified interest in STEM.
Seymour, Elaine, Anne B. Hunter, Sandra L. Laursen, and Tracee Deantoni. 2004. "Establishing the benefits of research experiences for undergraduates in the sciences: First findings from a three year study." Science Education 88: 493-534. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.10131.
The authors studied the costs and benefits of engaging in UR. The student participants were engaged in a summer research program for rising seniors at one of four liberal arts institutions. Students were positive about their experiences. The largest reported gains were in confidence at working as a scientist. Students noted that their research and problem-solving skills were enhanced as was their disciplinary knowledge. Many students also discussed large improvement in their communication and lab skills. Students valued the time with their mentors as well as working with other colleagues. Several also gained clarity regarding their career pathway and felt better prepared for graduate school. The authors also discussed their plans for further research with these data.
Taraban, Roman, and Erin Rogue. 2012. "Academic factors that affect undergraduate research experiences." Journal of Educational Psychology 104: 499-514. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026851.
These researchers used the Undergraduate Research Questionnaire (URQ) to assess the cognitive benefits of engaging in UR. The URQ’s subscales are Academic Mindset, Research Mindset, Research Methods, Faculty Support, and Peer Support. Biology and psychology students participated in the study. More research hours and lab course credits were related with higher enthusiasm for research. The frequency of faculty hours also mattered. More hours meeting with faculty was related to higher scores on Research Mindset and Research Methods. GPA also predicted scores on all five subscales, indicating that students with higher GPAs benefited more than those with lower GPAs. The authors conclude that we need to pay attention to student differences in UR.
Alanson, Erik R., Erin M. Alanson, Brittany Arthur, Aaron Burdette, Christopher Cooper, and Michael Sharp. 2020. "Re-envisioning Work-Integrated Learning During a Pandemic: Cincinnati’s Experiential Explorations Program." International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning 21 (5): 505-519.
This study examines the array of WIL opportunities offered and how they were reimagined and adapted to fit the needs of the people involved during the COVID-19 global health crisis. The flexible and innovative measures taken by the University of Cincinnati to continue and improve upon their offerings show that, for UC, student well-being and the health and success of faculty-scholars, administrators, and students is of the utmost importance to them. While it is still too early to have conclusive evidence on the success of the newer programs, the fact that we can see how well-adapted these programs can be shows that Work-Integrated Learning can survive and thrive in the most turbulent times.
Batholmeus, Petrina, and Carver Pop. 2019. "Enablers of Work-Integrated Learning in Technical Vocational Education and Training Teacher Education." International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning 20 (2): 147-159.
This qualitative study defines and examines enabling factors in industry-based work-integrated learning (WIL) integration into technical-vocational education and training (TVET) teacher education in South African universities. The initiative is specifically designed for TVET lecturers because the WIL that schoolteachers would typically undertake in school placements is not relevant to preparing technical-vocational students for an industry workplace.
Brown, Natalie. 2010. "WIL [ling] to Share: An Institutional Conversation to Guide Policy and Practice in Work-Integrated Learning." Higher Education Research & Development 29 (5): 507-518. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2010.502219.
Through the implementation of a roundtable discussion of staff from various disciplines, Natalie Brown aimed to provide a space for University of Tasmania (UTAS) staff to recognize the potential and challenges of the practice of WIL. Understood as a way to provide students with an experience that integrates industry learning and academic coursework, WIL has been seen as beneficial to both students and industry members. While students can experience learning in context and enhance their employability, industry can participate in preparing graduates for a career. Yet, the absence of a general structure and collaboration in curriculum development allows gaps to remain within WIL opportunities.
Cantor, Jeffrey A. 1995. "Apprenticeships Link Community‐Technical Colleges and Business and Industry for Workforce Training." Community College Journal of Research and Practice 19 (1): 47-71. https://doi.org/10.1080/1066892950190105.
This article focuses on how apprenticeships build relationships between community/technical colleges and the workforce. Cantor completed a research study that examines how effective cooperative apprenticeships are and how they have successful outcomes for linking employers and the community college system. This study was a 2-year case study in which Cantor studied multiple apprenticeship programs that produced interesting findings about collaboration and why employers and community colleges work with each other. According to Cantor, collaborations occur mostly when partnerships derive mutual exchanges, partnerships access monies and resources, partnerships can mediate conflicts, and contractual relationships exist (p. 53). Cantor notes that the intentionality of apprenticeships is really valuable and doesn’t just benefit the student but also the stakeholders involved with the apprenticeship. Cantor closes the article with suggestions and recommendations for developing and expanding successful apprenticeship programs.
Christman, Scott. 2012. "Preparing for Success Through Apprenticeship." Technology and Engineering Teacher 72 (1): 22-28.
This source provides a historical perspective of apprenticeships and then uses the Newport News Shipbuilding Company’s apprentice school as a case study, to look at the modern apprenticeship model and how students can benefit from these styles of programs. Christman wrote the article through the lens of a labor shortage in technical jobs within the engineering industry. The article provides an understanding of the apprenticeship system in the 21st century and recommends rethinking the current educational model to provide a complementary blend of college academic courses and career training with relevant work experiences.
Cooper, Lesley, Janice Orrell, and Margaret Bowden. 2010. Work Integrated Learning: A Guide to Effective Practice. Routledge.
Chapter 2 of Cooper, Orell, and Bowden’s book provides a definition of WIL, specifically defining some of the specific experiences of WIL. These terms include WIL experiences such as internships, practicums, and fieldwork. This definition is important given the fact that certain WIL experiences often overlap in terminology and can be confusing to differentiate at times. Additionally, the authors focus on specifically defining professional learning, service-learning, and cooperative learning as the three different models of WIL. Lastly, the authors describe the benefits and outcomes of WIL experiences for students. The most critical benefit of a WIL experience is that it allows students to put theory learned in the classroom setting into practice in the workplace. Upon reflection after completing a WIL experience, the integration of theory to practice is deepened and allows for tremendous professional growth within a student.
Dean, Bonnie A, Michelle J. Eady, and Hannah Milliken. 2021. "The Value of Embedding Work-Integrated Learning and Other Transitionary Supports into the First Year Curriculum: Perspectives of First Year Subject Coordinators." Journal of Teaching and Learning for Graduate Employability 12 (2): 51-64.
The authors sought to determine how WIL can be integrated into students’ experiences of transitioning to college during their first year. Ten Subject Coordinators were interviewed, and each participant was asked to explain how their subject supported first-year students’ transition into college and then asked about WIL. They found that most important experiences fall into either an academic or social category. Results show that the academic experience supports the first transition, social experiences support the second, and WIL can and should be implemented in the third transition, a student’s transition into becoming a professional.
Hughes, Karen, Aliisa Mylonas, and Pierre Benckendorff. 2013. "Students’ Reflections on Industry Placement: Comparing Four Undergraduate Work-Integrated Learning Streams." Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education 14 (4): 265-279.
Through the review of student reflections after the completion of their WIL program, Hughes et al. conclude that these opportunities for application-based professional development provide graduates with “a range of transferable skills and informed industry perspectives” (277). Students emphasized in their reflections the ability to put their coursework and subject knowledge into practice, recognizing the skills they held and potential areas of improvement. The immersion allowed students to recognize what industry professionals expected of their employees and understand what is needed to be successful in their discipline. Further, WIL students reflected upon their career choice as a whole, utilizing program experience to confirm the professional path they had selected and to recognize the culture surrounding the industry.
Jackson, Denise, and Nicholas Wilton. 2016. "Developing Career Management Competencies Among Undergraduates and the Role of Work-Integrated Learning." Teaching in Higher Education 21 (3): 266-286.
Denise Jackson and Nicholas Wilton’s research determines and evaluates the impact of WIL on the development of undergraduate students’ career management competencies. As a result of their research, the authors claim that work placements and other variations of WIL positively impact the development of opportunity awareness, decision-making learning, and transition learning. The research in this study was conducted by gathering data through self-assessment with an online survey.
Jackson, Denise. 2016. "Developing Pre-Professional Identity in Undergraduates Through Work-Integrated Learning." Higher Education 74 (5): 833-853. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-016-0080-2.
Jackson examines how work-integrated learning (WIL) enhances pre-professional identity in undergraduate students. Jackson finds that work placements positively affected the evolution of pre-professional identities. Students reported that personal reflection of their experience and appraisal were the most critical aspects of their WIL experience that strongly affected their pre-professional identities. Based on the triggers that were identified to progress pre-professional identities, Jackson also offers a variety of ways that practitioners can additionally enhance pre-professional identities in students. The author highlights that WIL allows students to understand expectations, attitudes, and responsibilities that are associated with their aspired profession, and progresses students professionally while they are still in college so that they are better prepared for their careers upon graduation.
Jackson, Denise. 2015. "Employability Skill Development in Work-Integrated Learning: Barriers and Best Practice." Studies in Higher Education 40 (2): 350-367. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2013.842221.
Jackson defines WIL as “the practice of combining traditional academic study, or formal learning, with student exposure to the world-of-work in their chosen profession, has a core aim of better preparing undergraduates for entry into the workforce” (350). In this paper, Jackson explores the influence that the work placement design, content, and coordination had on the student’s development of employability skills. Facilitating WIL effectively, in a way that will benefit the future career of the student, requires careful planning to ensure that the student has the best possible experience while also learning from challenges. Jackson found that the students’ perceptions as to what was most important in their learning aligned with the principles for best practice for WIL design.
Kay, Judie, Sonia Ferns, Leoni Russell, Judith Smith, and Theresa Winchester-Seeto. 2019. "The Emerging Future: Innovative Models of Work-Integrated Learning." International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning 20 (4): 401-413.
WIL is becoming foundational to higher education experiences across various Australian universities. In order to develop a breadth of industry partners and implementation of this practice in various disciplines, Kay et al. examine how institutions are seeking to abide by shifting work cultures and making WIL programs more adaptable. By reviewing current literature and exploring emerging models alongside university WIL facilitators through semi-structured interviews, the researchers seek to understand new approaches to WIL. This reflection on WIL emphasizes the efforts of institutions to expand opportunities for engaged learning experiences for students.
O'Banion, Terry U. 2019. "A Brief History of Workforce Education in Community Colleges." Community College Journal of Research and Practice 43 (3): 216-223. https://doi.org/10.1080/10668926.2018.1547668.
O’Banion’s article provides the history of workforce education in community colleges. Additionally, he highlights the issues and four current developments of workforce education. Workforce education is very much embedded in community colleges, as many higher education leaders indicate that workforce education may be the primary purpose of a student even attending college, and especially in community college. O’Banion notes that vocational education became very prevalent in 2003, and has evolved through apprenticeship training, trade school, and career and technical education for the past one hundred years.
Papakonstantinou, Theo, and Gerry Rayner. 2015. "Student Perception of Their Workplace Preparedness: Making Work-Integrated Learning More Effective." Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education 16 (1): 23-24.
Wanting to learn more about how students in WIL placements felt about their employability and application of coursework once completing their program, Papkonstantinou and Rayner sought to gauge student perspectives through various surveys. Utilizing a Likert scale, a sample of Monash University students reflected upon their WIL experience and the obtained skills and value immediately after completing their placement through the survey, then completing a follow-up at least six months after.
August, Ella, and Olivia S Anderson. 2022. "A Framework for Designing Effective Writing Assignments in Public Health." In Writing Beyond the University Preparing Lifelong Learners for Lifewide Writing, edited by Julia Bleakney, Jessie L Moore and Paula Rosinski, 205-220. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
The authors share an eight-item framework for designing effective writing assignments, as well as an example of a “Real-World Writing Project” that gives students practice writing for authentic audiences and purposes. Although focused on writing in public health, the strategies are adaptable to other disciplines.
Bleakney, Julia, Paula Rosinski, and Jessie L Moore. 2022. "Introduction: Writing Beyond the University and this Collection." In Writing Beyond the University Preparing Lifelong Learners for Lifewide Writing, edited by Julia Bleakney, Jessie L Moore and Paula Rosinski, 1-19. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
In this introduction to the collection, the collection editors use three composite case studies of writers to illustrate what writing beyond the university can entail and to explore how two generations of research have studied that writing. They also briefly preview the collection’s other chapters.
Bleakney, Julia, Heather Lindenman, Travis Maynard, Li Li, Paula Rosinski, and Jessie L Moore. 2022. "Understanding Alumni Writing Experiences in the United States." In Writing Beyond the University Preparing Lifelong Learners for Lifewide Writing, edited by Julia Bleakney, Jessie L Moore and Paula Rosinski, 51-69. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
The authors present data from a national survey of college graduates and from three institutional studies to illustrate what writing experiences look like for alumni in the United States and at these institutions. Snapshots from each study explore how institutional efforts like campus-wide writing initiatives, writing majors, campus jobs, and other campus writing experiences prepare students for the writing they’ll encounter as alumni.
DePalma, Michael-John, Lilian W. Mina, Kara Taczak, Michelle J. Eady, Radhika Jaidev, and Ina Alexandra Machura. 2022. "Connecting Work-Integrated Learning and Writing Transfer: Possibilities and Promise for Writing Studies." Composition Forum 48. https://compositionforum.com/issue/48/work-integrated-learning.php.
Abstract from the authors/article:
This article explores ways that the field of rhetoric and writing studies can benefit from intentional engagement with work-integrated learning (WIL) research and pedagogy in the context of transfer research. Specifically, the article discusses: (1) redesigning writing internship pedagogies to align with WIL learning and curriculum theories and practices; (2) revisiting threshold concepts of writing by accounting for knowledge, theories, and practices that are central to epistemological participation in a variety of professional writing careers; (3) reconsidering notions of vocation to emphasize the ways writers’ personal epistemologies and social trajectories interact with the purposes, aims, and values of academic and workplace contexts; and (4) reconceptualizing writing major curricula in relation to the conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and dispositions of expert writers in a range of professional contexts. In short, we argue that intentional engagement with WIL can enrich work on writing transfer and the field of rhetoric and writing studies as a whole. In addition to our theoretical discussion of the value of engaging with WIL frameworks in writing studies, we introduce our multi-institutional, transnational study of how WIL affects diverse populations of undergraduate students’ recursive transfer of writing knowledge and practices as an example of the kind of generative research on writing transfer and WIL that we are encouraging writing transfer researchers to take up.
Fitzpatrick, Brian, and Jessica McCaughey. 2022. "“I’ll Try to Make Myself Sound Smarter than I am”: Learning to Negotiate Power in Workplace Writing." In Writing Beyond the University Preparing Lifelong Learners for Lifewide Writing, edited by Julia Bleakney, Jessie L Moore and Paula Rosinki, 154-167. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
While they interviewed over fifty participants, these authors explore in this chapter in detail the experiences of two US-based workplace writers as they grapple with new kinds of writing and learn on the job. The experiences of these two illustrative cases highlight that professionals who are not hired as “writers” often regularly write, and struggle to write with authority, for their jobs.
Fortune, Niamh, Ryan Dippre, Lucie Dvorakova, Alison Farrell, Melissa Weresh, and Nadya Yakovchuk. 2021. "Beyond the University: Towards Transfer." In Emerging Issues IV: Changing Times, Changing Context, edited by Margaret Keane, Claire McAvinia and Íde O'Sullivan, 128-147. Educational Developers in Ireland Network (EDIN).
The authors explore how students experience writing transfer beyond the university using a case study of Froebel Department of Primary and Early Childhood Education at Maynooth University. The publication is available at https://www.edin.ie/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/EDINpublicationOnline.pdf
Lauren, Benjamin, and Stacey Pigg. 2022. "“And Sometimes We Debate”: How Networking Transforms What Professional Writers Know." In Writing Beyond the University Preparing Lifelong Learners for Lifewide Writing, edited by Julia Bleakney, Jessie L Moore and Paula Rosinski, 221-234. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
The authors argue that social media networking is essential for building writers’ self-agency and suggest ways to teach networking as a transformative writing practice in the classroom. By learning about networking as a transformative practice, students also can think critically about who is in their networks, how to amplify underrepresented voices and ideas, and how to network ethically.
Lusford , Karen, Carl Whithaus, and Johnathan Alexander. 2022. "Collaboration as Wayfinding in Alumni’s Post-Graduate Writing Experiences." In Writing Beyond the University Preparing Lifelong Learners for Lifewide Writing, edited by Julia Bleakney, Jessie L Moore and Paula Rosinski, 24-37. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
Drawing upon a pilot study of twenty-two alumni from three different campuses, “Collaboration as Wayfinding” considers how post-collegiates orient themselves to different forms of collaboration, both intentionally and serendipitously. The chapter examines the exploratory, unanticipated, and contingent forms of collaborative writing alumni engage in as they imagine, define, and create goals for shared writing.
Phuong Pham, Ha Thi, and Ambinintsoa Vola Dominique. 2022. "Examining the Effects of Reflective Writing and Peer Feedback on Student Writing in and Beyond the University." In Writing Beyond the University Preparing Lifelong Learners for Lifewide Writing, edited by Julia Bleakney, Jessie L Moore and Paula Rosinski, 108-123. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
This chapter examines how two types of sustainable writing strategies, facilitated reflection and peer feedback, can help support student writing development in contexts where institutional support is lacking. Studying the longitudinal writing of Malagasy and Vietnamese students, the authors conclude by suggesting ways to make reflection and peer feedback even more meaningful for such students.
Robertson, Liane, Kara Taczak, and Kathleen B. Yancey. 2012. "Notes Toward A Theory of Prior Knowledge and Its Role in College Composers' Transfer of Knowledge and Practice." Composition Forum 26. http://compositionforum.com/issue/26/prior-knowledge-transfer.php.
Saerys-Foy, Jeffrey, Laurie Ann Britt-Smith, Zan Walker-Goncalves, and Lauren M Sardi. 2022. "Bridging Academic and Workplace Writing: Insights from Employers." In Writing Beyond the University Preparing Lifelong Learners for Lifewide Writing, edited by Julia Bleakney, Jessie L Moore and Paula Rosinski, 124-138. Elon, NC: Elon University Center for Engaged Learning.
Representing three US institutions, these authors use results from an employer survey to illustrate how workplace perspectives on writing compare to writing practices often enacted in college classrooms. They discuss strategies for bridging this divide between the different perspectives through writing instruction and practices across the curriculum.
Tuomi-Grohn, Terttu, and Yrjo Engestrom, eds. 2003. Between School and Work: New Perspectives on Transfer and Boundary Crossing. Oxford: Pergamon.
Wardle, Elizabeth. 2007. "Understanding 'Transfer' from FYC: Preliminary Results of a Longitudinal Study." WPA Journal 31 (1-2): 65-85.
Yancey, Kathleen, Liane Robertson, and Kara Taczak. 2014. Writing Across Contexts: Transfer, Composition, and Sites of Writing. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
In Writing across Contexts, Yancey, Robertson, and Taczak draw from studies of transfer, reflective practice, and learning more broadly as they examine the role of curriculum in promoting (or not promoting) students’ transfer of writing knowledge and practices from first-year composition (FYC) to future writing contexts. They compared an expressivist approach, a media and culture theme, and the Teaching for Transfer design for teaching FYC by interviewing faculty, analyzing course materials and students’ writing, and interviewing students both during the semester they were enrolled in FYC and in the subsequent semester.
In brief, students in the expressivist FYC course seemingly drew from prior (high school) experiences with writing, but they did not tap their FYC course content when they wrote for future courses. Similarly, students in the media and culture themed FYC drew on models and process strategies in subsequent writing contexts, since they had not developed rhetorical analysis strategies or writing theories in FYC to guide their examination of and responses to future writing situations. Yancey, Robertson, and Taczak write:
Without discernible content, students fill in their own content; without a theory on which to build and apply knowledge, Carolina turned to models and Darren turned to process. In cases like this – when content or theory is absent or indiscernible, and especially when it is perceived to be at odds with writing in other university sites – models of writing become the teacher and the curriculum…. Too much “floating” content – content unmoored to specific writing theory or practice – resulted in a lack of cohesion, a common thread absent throughout the course design that students could discern or use as a guide or passport. (pp. 87-88)
In other words, regardless of how good a teacher might be, if the FYC curriculum doesn’t supply students with writing-relevant content and with a theory for organizing that content as it relates to understanding and responding to varied writing contexts, students are unlikely to apply their FYC experience to writing in subsequent courses and extracurricular contexts.
In the Teaching for Transfer (TFT) design, students learn key terms central to analyzing, practicing, and theorizing writing (e.g., genre, audience, rhetorical situation, etc.) and develop their own theories of writing. Reflection also plays a key role in students’ theory-building processes. While not all students in the TFT FYC course in Yancey, Robertson, and Taczak’s study engaged in mindful transfer from FYC to their subsequent writing contexts, two of the three case study students “kept building their theory of writing, then, connecting key terms and concepts to one another and layering in new concepts as they learned them” and “they became increasingly sophisticated at articulating and practicing their theory of writing” (p. 99). The curriculum’s grounding in writing’s key terms helped students build ways of thinking about and practices for engaging with future writing contexts.
Writing across Contexts offers a helpful framework for discussing how a FYC curriculum grounded in writing content can help students assemble and remix writing knowledge in ways that promote transfer to other writing contexts. Additionally, the authors share sample course policies and syllabi, major assignments, and semester schedules for the Teaching for Transfer design in the book’s appendices.